This section provides general style and formatting information only. Formatting guidelines for specific article types can be found below.
When preparing figures, please follow the formatting instructions below.
We accept the following file formats for figures:
For information and suggestions of suitable file formats for specific figure types, please see our author academy.
Figures are resized during publication of the final full text and PDF versions to conform to the BioMed Central standard dimensions, which are detailed below.
Figures on the web:
Figures in the final PDF version:
Figures should be designed such that all information, including text, is legible at these dimensions. All lines should be wider than 0.25 pt when constrained to standard figure widths. All fonts must be embedded.
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The following word processor file formats are acceptable for the main manuscript document:
Please note: editable files are required for processing in production. If your manuscript contains any non-editable files (such as PDFs) you will be required to re-submit an editable file when you submit your revised manuscript, or after editorial acceptance in case no revision is necessary.
Please use BioMed Central's TeX template and BibTeX stylefile if you use TeX format. Submit your references using either a bib or bbl file. When submitting TeX submissions, please submit both your TeX file and your bib/bbl file as manuscript files. Please also convert your TeX file into a PDF (please do not use a DIV file) and submit this PDF as a supplementary file with the name 'Reference PDF'. This PDF will be used by our production team as a reference point to check the layout of the article as the author intended.
The Editorial Manager system checks for any errors in the Tex files. If an error is present then the system PDF will display LaTex code and highlight and explain the error in a section beginning with an exclamation mark (!).
All relevant editable source files must be uploaded during the submission process. Failing to submit these source files will cause unnecessary delays in the production process.
BioMedCentral_article (ZIP format) - preferred template
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in the journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
영어 원고의 경우, 에디터 및 리뷰어들이 귀하의 원고에 실린 결과물을 정확하게 평가할 수 있도록, 그들이 충분히 이해할 수 있을 만한 수준으로 작성되어야 합니다. 만약 영작문과 관련하여 도움을 받기를 원하신다면 다음의 사항들을 고려하여 주십시오:
영문 교정 서비스는 게재를 위한 요구사항은 아니며, 해당 서비스의 이용이 피어 리뷰에 논문이 선택되거나 게재가 수락되는 것을 의미하거나 보장하지 않습니다.
For all journals, BioMed Central strongly encourages all datasets on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely to be either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main paper or additional supporting files, in machine-readable format (such as spread sheets rather than PDFs) whenever possible. Please see the list of recommended repositories in our editorial policies.
For some journals, deposition of the data on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely is an absolute requirement. Please check the Instructions for Authors for the relevant journal and article type for journal specific policies.
For all manuscripts, information about data availability should be detailed in an ‘Availability of data and materials’ section. For more information on the content of this section, please see the Declarations section of the relevant journal’s Instruction for Authors. For more information on BioMed Centrals policies on data availability, please see our [editorial policies].
The following format for the 'Availability of data and materials section of your manuscript should be used:
"The dataset(s) supporting the conclusions of this article is(are) available in the [repository name] repository, [unique persistent identifier and hyperlink to dataset(s) in http:// format]."
The following format is required when data are included as additional files:
"The dataset(s) supporting the conclusions of this article is(are) included within the article (and its additional file(s))."
BioMed Central endorses the Force 11 Data Citation Principles and requires that all publicly available datasets be fully referenced in the reference list with an accession number or unique identifier such as a DOI.
For databases, this section should state the web/ftp address at which the database is available and any restrictions to its use by non-academics.
For software, this section should include:
Information on available repositories for other types of scientific data, including clinical data, can be found in our editorial policies.
See our editorial policies for author guidance on good citation practice.
Please check the submission guidelines for the relevant journal and article type.
Only articles, clinical trial registration records and abstracts that have been published or are in press, or are available through public e-print/preprint servers, may be cited.
Unpublished abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be included in the text and referred to as "unpublished observations" or "personal communications" giving the names of the involved researchers. Obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited colleagues is the responsibility of the author. Only footnotes are permitted. Journal abbreviations follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
Any in press articles cited within the references and necessary for the reviewers' assessment of the manuscript should be made available if requested by the editorial office.
Please check the Instructions for Authors for the relevant journal and article type for examples of the relevant reference style.
Web links and URLs: All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.
Authors may wish to make use of reference management software to ensure that reference lists are correctly formatted.
When preparing tables, please follow the formatting instructions below.
If you have any questions or are experiencing a problem with tables, please contact the customer service team at firstname.lastname@example.org.
As the length and quantity of data is not restricted for many article types, authors can provide datasets, tables, movies, or other information as additional files.
All Additional files will be published along with the accepted article. Do not include files such as patient consent forms, certificates of language editing, or revised versions of the main manuscript document with tracked changes. Such files, if requested, should be sent by email to the journal’s editorial email address, quoting the manuscript reference number. Please do not send completed patient consent forms unless requested.
Results that would otherwise be indicated as "data not shown" should be included as additional files. Since many web links and URLs rapidly become broken, BioMed Central requires that supporting data are included as additional files, or deposited in a recognized repository. Please do not link to data on a personal/departmental website. Do not include any individual participant details. The maximum file size for additional files is 20 MB each, and files will be virus-scanned on submission. Each additional file should be cited in sequence within the main body of text.
If additional material is provided, please list the following information in a separate section of the manuscript text:
Additional files should be named "Additional file 1" and so on and should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. 'An additional movie file shows this in more detail [see Additional file 1]'.
For further guidance on how to use Additional files or recommendations on how to present particular types of data or information, please see How to use additional files.
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Betty is the Editor of BMC Primary Care. Betty did first a BA in Primary Education at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, then an MA in Speech and Language Therapy, an MA in Cognitive Neuropsychology, and a BA in Linguistics at Complutense University of Madrid. She then moved to Sydney to do a PhD in Cognitive Science at Macquarie University. Before joining BMC, Betty worked in academia for 10 years: she was a Marie-Curie Experienced Researcher at Bangor University, a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at Royal Holloway, University of London, and a Research Scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and at the University of Göttingen.
Chaisiri Angkurawaranon received his MD from Chiang Mai University and specialises in Family Medicine. He received a Masters in Medical Statistics and a PhD in Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. His research focuses on global health issues related to ageing, and chronic conditions (both communicable and non-communicable) in primary care.
Jean-François Chenot, MD, MPH, is Professor of General Practice at University Medicine Greifswald and practising GP in a rural practice in Pomerania. He has more than 20 years academic expertise in clinical general practice, research and education. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8877-2950
Paul Van Royen, MD, PhD, is Professor of Family Medicine within the Department of Family Medicine and Population Health. He was Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (2012-18). He has more than 30 years academic expertise in clinical general practice and research. His academic work is directed at teaching and research in primary care. He is co-ordinator of several teaching modules and programs at undergraduate levels, as well as graduate and postgraduate levels. He was/is involved in several research projects, including several EU-funded projects within primary care, on respiratory infections and antibiotic prescribing, medical decision making, medical education, health care organization and data handling. He is author of more than 250 articles in peer-reviewed journals and reviewer of different scientific journals. At his department, he has developed a research centre with a strong expertise in qualitative research and systematic reviews. He is also co-ordinator of the Clinical Guidelines project for primary care in Belgium.