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  1. Patient safety is defined as an activity that minimizes and removes possible errors and injuries to patients. A number of factors have been found to influence patient safety management, including the facilitie...

    Authors: Katarzyna Kosiek, Iwona Staniec, Maciej Godycki-Cwirko, Adam Depta and Anna Kowalczyk
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:183
  2. Persistent somatic symptoms (PSS) are common in primary care and often accompanied by an increasing disease burden for both the patient and healthcare. In medical practice, PSS is historically considered a dia...

    Authors: Willeke M. Kitselaar, Rosalie van der Vaart, Madelon van Tilborg-den Boeft, Hedwig M. M. Vos, Mattijs E. Numans and Andrea W. M. Evers
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:182

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Family Practice 2021 22:236

  3. In addition to the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic to physical health, mental health is challenged by the emotional response to the situation and the official measures taken to stop the pandemic. This study ai...

    Authors: Laura Diaz Hernandez, Stéphanie Giezendanner, Roland Fischer and Andreas Zeller
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:181
  4. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ministry of Health asked Singapore’s private general practitioners (GPs) to perform swab testing in their clinics, but some GPs had concerns about swabber protection. Our aim ...

    Authors: Boon See Teo, Esther Li, Yi-Lin Khoo, Michelle Evaristo, Yang Fang and Helen E. Smith
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:180

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Family Practice 2021 22:222

  5. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to cope with mental distress and pain issues has helped many patients in primary health care in Sweden. However, the effects of CBT to reduce sick leave has not be...

    Authors: Åsa Kadowaki, Anna-Karin Alvunger, Hanna Israelsson Larsen, Anna Persdotter, Marta Stelmach Zak, Peter Johansson and Fredrik H. Nystrom
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:179
  6. Inappropriate imaging and low-value care for low back pain (LBP) are common. A new patient-education booklet was created to overcome identified barriers to the delivery of recommended care, including the use o...

    Authors: Anna S. Simula, Hazel J. Jenkins, Mark J. Hancock, Antti Malmivaara, Neill Booth and Jaro Karppinen
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:178
  7. Evidence on specific interventions to improve diabetes control in primary care is available, but this evidence is not always well-implemented. The concept of “mindlines” has been proposed to explain how clinic...

    Authors: John W. Epling, Michelle S. Rockwell, Allison D. Miller and M. Colette Carver
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:177
  8. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) are at high-risk of readmission after hospital discharge. There is conflicting evidence however on whether timely f...

    Authors: Sarah Griffiths, Gaibrie Stephen, Tara Kiran and Karen Okrainec
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:176
  9. Implementation of a care manager in a collaborative care team in Swedish primary care via a randomized controlled trial showed successful outcome. As four years have elapsed since the implementation of care ma...

    Authors: Irene Svenningsson, Dominique Hange, Camilla Udo, Karin Törnbom, Cecilia Björkelund and Eva-Lisa Petersson
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:175
  10. The coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) tested health care systems worldwide. This qualitative study aimed to explore and understand the experiences, beliefs and concerns of Primary Care Professionals (PCPs) regar...

    Authors: Emmanouil Smyrnakis, Despoina Symintiridou, Martha Andreou, Michael Dandoulakis, Elias Theodoropoulos, Stamatia Kokkali, Chrysanthi Manolaki, Dimitra Iosifina Papageorgiou, Charis Birtsou, Aristofanis Paganas, Panagiotis Stachteas, Nikolaos Vlachopoulos, Ilias Pagkozidis, Akis Zeimbekis, Violeta Roka, Anastasios Giakoumis…
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:174
  11. A SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead from asymptomatic through to critical disease in a dynamic and unpredictable course within a few days. The challenge in outpatient monitoring the highly contagious COVID-19 dise...

    Authors: Mariell Hoffmann, Sandra Stengel, Johanna Forstner, Annika Baldauf, Gunter Laux, Frank Aluttis, Markus Qreini, Peter Engeser, Joachim Szecsenyi and Frank Peters-Klimm
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:173
  12. Influenza-like illness (ILI) and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are a considerable health problem in Europe. Most diagnoses are made by family physicians (FPs) and based on symptoms and clinical signs rath...

    Authors: Nicola Buono, Michael Harris, Carmine Farinaro, Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Angelo Cavicchi, Filippo D’Addio, Amedeo Scelsa, Baldassarre Mirra, Enrico Napolitano and Jean K. Soler
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:172
  13. The “5 + 3” residency training is the main stream general practitioner training program in China. However, a competency model is absent for evaluating the clinical competence attained by general practitioners ...

    Authors: Yun Wei, Feiyue Wang, Zhaolu Pan, Meirong Wang, Guanghui Jin, Yanli Liu and Xiaoqin Lu
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:171
  14. In the Brazilian public health system, primary health care (PHC) is provided by the municipalities and is considered the entry level of the Unified Health System (SUS). Governmental pharmaceutical services (Ph...

    Authors: Nathália Cano Pereira, Vera Lucia Luiza, Mônica Rodrigues Campos and Luisa Arueira Chaves
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:170
  15. The number of Americans who use tobacco has decreased in the twenty-first century, but electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have increased the complexity of treating tobacco dependence. The experiences ...

    Authors: Kevin A. Kovach, Reshana Peterson, Rajani Bharati, Kathryn Istas and Michael Monroe
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:169
  16. To investigate patients’ perspectives on polypharmacy and the use of a digital decision support system to assist general practitioners (GPs) in performing medication reviews.

    Authors: Robin Brünn, Beate S. Müller, Benno Flaig, Petra Kellermann-Mühlhoff, Ute Karbach, Sara Söling, Christiane Muth and Marjan van den Akker
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:168
  17. A prerequisite for general practitioners (GPs) being able to refer patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms for further investigations is that individuals present the symptoms to the GP. Not all sympt...

    Authors: Kirubakaran Balasubramaniam, Sanne Rasmussen, Peter Fentz Haastrup, Kaspar Suadicani, Jens Søndergaard and Dorte Ejg Jarbøl
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:167
  18. About 25% of patients experience adverse drug events (ADE) in primary care, but few events are reported by the patients themselves. One solution to improve the detection and management of ADEs in primary care ...

    Authors: Karine Buchet-Poyau, Pauline Occelli, Sandrine Touzet, Carole Langlois-Jacques, Sophie Figon, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Antoine Duclos, Marc Chanelière, Cyrille Colin, Muriel Rabilloud and Maud Keriel-Gascou
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:165
  19. We aim to document the long-term outcomes of ischemic stroke patients and explore the potential risk factors for recurrent cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in primary care.

    Authors: Jinghao Han, Yue Kwan Choi, Wing Kit Leung, Ming Tung Hui and Maria Kwan Wa Leung
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:164
  20. Accreditation is a widely employed quality assurance concept in health care and the survey visit is the central method for assessing participating organisations’ compliance with accreditation standards. Despit...

    Authors: Tina Drud Due, Thorkil Thorsen and Marius Brostrøm Kousgaard
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:163
  21. Primary care physicians have diverse responsibilities. To collaborate with cancer specialists efficiently, they should prioritise roles desired by other collaborators rather than roles based on their own belie...

    Authors: Takashi Chinen, Yusuke Sasabuchi, Kazuhiko Kotani and Hironori Yamaguchi
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:162
  22. Stratified care involves subgrouping patients based on key characteristics, e.g. prognostic risk, and matching these subgroups to early treatment options. The STarT-MSK programme developed and tested a new str...

    Authors: Joanne Protheroe, Benjamin Saunders, Jonathan C. Hill, Adrian Chudyk, Nadine E. Foster, Bernadette Bartlam, Simon Wathall and Vincent Cooper
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:161
  23. Many survivors of critical illness suffer from long-lasting physical, cognitive, and mental health sequelae. The number of affected patients is expected to markedly increase due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many ...

    Authors: KFR Schmidt, J. Gensichen, S. Gehrke-Beck, R. P. Kosilek, F. Kühne, C Heintze, L. M. Baldwin and D. M. Needham
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:160
  24. Primary care professionals (PCPs) face mounting pressures associated with their work, which has resulted in high burn-out numbers. Increasing PCPs’ job satisfaction is proposed as a solution in this regard. Po...

    Authors: Caro H. C. Lemmen, Gili Yaron, Rachel Gifford and Marieke D. Spreeuwenberg
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:159
  25. Chronic insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder, with ten to thirty percent of Australian adults reporting chronic difficulties falling asleep and/or staying asleep such that it causes significant daytime impa...

    Authors: Jenny Haycock, Nicole Grivell, Anne Redman, Bandana Saini, Andrew Vakulin, Leon Lack, Nicole Lovato, Alexander Sweetman, Nicholas Zwar, Nigel Stocks, Oliver Frank, Sutapa Mukherjee, Robert Adams, R. Doug McEvoy and Elizabeth Hoon
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:158
  26. Access to high-quality primary care has been identified as a pressing need for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Adults with IDD live with complex physical and mental health condit...

    Authors: Nicole Bobbette, Rosemary Lysaght, Hélène Ouellette-Kuntz, Joan Tranmer and Catherine Donnelly
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:157
  27. China has more ascertained cases of diabetes than any other country. Much of the care of people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China is managed by GPs and this will increase with the implementation of health c...

    Authors: Mi Yao, Dong-ying Zhang, Jie-ting Fan, Kai Lin, Shamil Haroon, Dawn Jackson, Hai Li, Wei Chen, Richard Lehman and Kar Keung Cheng
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:156
  28. Many cancer patients in the low- and middle-income countries seek care with traditional health practitioners (THPs) and use traditional and complementary medicines (T&CMs) for treatment of cancers. Little is k...

    Authors: Amos Deogratius Mwaka, Jennifer Achan, Winnie Adoch and Henry Wabinga
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:155
  29. Individual illness perception is known to influence a range of outcome variables. However, little is known regarding illness perception in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its relation to the use of the heal...

    Authors: Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke, Solveig Lu Rüdlin, Florian Junne, Paul Enck, Katja Brenk-Franz, Stephan Zipfel and Monika A. Rieger
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:154
  30. This qualitative study is a sub-component of BETTER WISE, a comprehensive and structured approach that proactively addresses chronic disease prevention, screening, and cancer survivorship, including screening ...

    Authors: N. Sopcak, C. Fernandes, M. A. O’Brien, D. Ofosu, M. Wong, T. Wong, M. Kebbe and D. Manca
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:153
  31. Diabetes and hypertension care require effective communication between healthcare professionals and patients. Training programs may improve the communication skills of healthcare professionals but no systemati...

    Authors: Mi Yao, Xue-ying Zhou, Zhi-jie Xu, Richard Lehman, Shamil Haroon, Dawn Jackson and Kar Keung Cheng
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:152
  32. Cough is a relevant reason for encounter in primary care. For evidence-based decision making, general practitioners need setting-specific knowledge about prevalences, pre-test probabilities, and prognosis. Acc...

    Authors: Milena Bergmann, Jörg Haasenritter, Dominik Beidatsch, Sonja Schwarm, Kaja Hörner, Stefan Bösner, Paula Grevenrath, Laura Schmidt, Annika Viniol, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff and Annette Becker
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:151
  33. Many problems with primary care physicians’ psychosocial working conditions have been documented. Many studies on working condition have used the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) model, which posits that poor hea...

    Authors: Per Nilsen, Hanna Fernemark, Ida Seing, Kristina Schildmeijer, Carin Ericsson and Janna Skagerström
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:149
  34. In an abdominal symptom study in primary care in six European countries, 511 cases of cancer were recorded prospectively among 61,802 patients 16 years and older in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Belgiu...

    Authors: Knut Holtedahl, Lars Borgquist, Gé A. Donker, Frank Buntinx, David Weller, Christine Campbell, Jörgen Månsson, Victoria Hammersley, Tonje Braaten and Ranjan Parajuli
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:148
  35. Within-consultation recruitment to primary care trials is challenging. Ensuring procedures are efficient and self-explanatory is the key to optimising recruitment. Trial recruitment software that integrates wi...

    Authors: Christie Cabral, Kathryn Curtis, Vasa Curcin, Jesús Domínguez, Vibhore Prasad, Anne Schilder, Nicholas Turner, Scott Wilkes, Jodi Taylor, Sarah Gallagher, Paul Little, Brendan Delaney, Michael Moore, Alastair D. Hay and Jeremy Horwood
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:147
  36. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, general practices were asked to expand triage and to reduce unnecessary face-to-face contact by prioritizing other consultation modes, e.g., online messaging, video, or telephon...

    Authors: Shaun Lackey, Kelly Ann Schmidtke and Ivo Vlaev
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:146
  37. The rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) has placed a tremendous burden on healthcare systems around the world, resulting in a call for mor...

    Authors: Kam-Suen Chan, Eric Yuk-Fai Wan, Weng-Yee Chin, Will Ho-Gi Cheng, Margaret Kay Ho, Esther Yee-Tak Yu and Cindy Lo-Kuen Lam
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:145
  38. Primary healthcare-based Early Identification and Brief Intervention (EIBI) for hazardous and harmful alcohol use is both a clinically relevant and cost-effective strategy to reduce heavy drinking. Unfortunate...

    Authors: Bram Pussig, Lodewijk Pas, Ann Li, Mieke Vermandere, Bert Aertgeerts and Catharina Matheï
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:144
  39. Integrated primary care teams are ideally positioned to support the mental health care needs arising during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding how COVID-19 has affected mental health care delivery within pri...

    Authors: Rachelle Ashcroft, Catherine Donnelly, Maya Dancey, Sandeep Gill, Simon Lam, Toula Kourgiantakis, Keith Adamson, David Verrilli, Lisa Dolovich, Anne Kirvan, Kavita Mehta, Deepy Sur and Judith Belle Brown
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:143
  40. Health services to date have inadequately addressed the physical and mental health needs of patients with medically unexplained symptoms. This qualitative study evaluates a piloted facilitated support group (F...

    Authors: Michelle Marcinow, Jane Sandercock, Chelsea D’Silva, David Daien, Carly Ellis, Christine Dias and Elizabeth Mansfield
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:142
  41. Genetic screening (GS), defined as the clinical testing of a population to identify asymptomatic individuals with the aim of providing those identified as high risk with prevention, early treatment, or reprodu...

    Authors: Rose Wai-Yee Fok, Cheryl Siow Bin Ong, Désirée Lie, Diana Ishak, Si Ming Fung, Wern Ee Tang, Shirley Sun, Helen Smith and Joanne Yuen Yie Ngeow
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:141
  42. Health services internationally have been compelled to change their methods of service delivery in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, to mitigate the spread of infection amongst health professionals and...

    Authors: Fiona Imlach, Eileen McKinlay, Jonathan Kennedy, Caroline Morris, Megan Pledger, Jacqueline Cumming and Karen McBride-Henry
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:140
  43. Considering the global refugee crisis, there is an increasing demand on primary care physicians to be able to adequately assess and address the health care needs of individual refugees, including both the soma...

    Authors: Erica Rothlind, Uno Fors, Helena Salminen, Per Wändell and Solvig Ekblad
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:138
  44. The role played by nurses in caring for children in pediatricians’ officies in the community is crucial to ensure integrated care. In Italy, pediatricians are responsible for the health of children aged 0–14 y...

    Authors: Immacolata Dall’Oglio, Giovanni Vitali Rosati, Valentina Biagioli, Emanuela Tiozzo, Orsola Gawronski, Riccardo Ricci, Antonio Garofalo, Simone Piga, Simone Gramaccioni, Claudio Di Maria, Valentina Vanzi, Alessandra Querciati, Rosaria Alvaro, Luciana Biancalani, Ersilia Buonomo, Mattia Doria…
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:136
  45. There is a current trend to reassess the adequacy of care. Establishing top five lists by involving patients is one way to address medical overuse. The objective of this study was to establish a patients’ top ...

    Authors: Agnès Hazard, Marion Debin, Corentin Hervé, Caroline Guerrisi, Camille Bonnet and Mathilde François
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:134
  46. In recent years, telemedicine consultations have evolved as a new form of providing primary healthcare. Telemedicine options can provide benefits to patients in terms of access, reduced travel time and no risk...

    Authors: Cecilia Dahlgren, Margareta Dackehag, Per Wändell and Clas Rehnberg
    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2021 22:133

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Dr Betty Mousikou, Editor

BMBetty is the Editor of BMC Primary Care. Betty did first a BA in Primary Education at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, then an MA in Speech and Language Therapy, an MA in Cognitive Neuropsychology, and a BA in Linguistics at Complutense University of Madrid. She then moved to Sydney to do a PhD in Cognitive Science at Macquarie University. Before joining BMC, Betty worked in academia for 10 years: she was a Marie-Curie Experienced Researcher at Bangor University, a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at Royal Holloway, University of London, and a Research Scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and at the University of Göttingen.

Senior Editorial Board Members

Dr Chaisiri Angkurawaranon

ChaisiNew Content Itemri Angkurawaranon received his MD from Chiang Mai University and specialises in Family Medicine. He received a Masters in Medical Statistics and a PhD in Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. His research focuses on global health issues related to ageing, and chronic conditions (both communicable and non-communicable) in primary care.



Professor Jean-François Chenot

JeanNew Content Item-François Chenot, MD, MPH, is Professor of General Practice at University Medicine Greifswald and practising GP in a rural practice in Pomerania. He has more than 20 years academic expertise in clinical general practice, research and education. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8877-2950




Professor Paul Van Royen

PaNew Content Itemul Van Royen, MD, PhD, is Professor of Family Medicine within the Department of Family Medicine and Population Health. He was Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (2012-18). He has more than 30 years academic expertise in clinical general practice and research. His academic work is directed at teaching and research in primary care. He is co-ordinator of several teaching modules and programs at undergraduate levels, as well as graduate and postgraduate levels. He was/is involved in several research projects, including several EU-funded projects within primary care, on respiratory infections and antibiotic prescribing, medical decision making, medical education, health care organization and data handling. He is author of more than 250 articles in peer-reviewed journals and reviewer of different scientific journals. At his department, he has developed a research centre with a strong expertise in qualitative research and systematic reviews. He is also co-ordinator of the Clinical Guidelines project for primary care in Belgium.