Baker C. Obesity statistics, briefing paper (number 3336). 2019 https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN03336/SN03336.pdf. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
National Health Service Digital. Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet, England. 2019. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/statistics-on-obesity-physical-activity-and-diet/statistics-on-obesity-physical-activity-and-diet-england-2019. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
HM Government. Guidance – Health matters: Obesity and the food environment. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-matters-obesity-and-the-food-environment/health-matters-obesity-and-the-food-environment%2D%2D2. 2017. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Smeeth L. Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults. Lancet. 2014;384(9945):755–65.
Brown KF, Rumgay H, Dunlop C, Ryan M, Quartly F, Cox A, Deas A, Elliss-Brookes L, Gavin A, Hounsome L, Huws D, Ormiston-Smith N, Shelton J, White C, Parkin DM. The fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 2015. Br J Cancer. 2018;118:1130–41.
National Health Service Digital. Patients registered at a GP practice, September 2019. 2019. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/patients-registered-at-a-gp-practice/september-2019. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
Halbert CH, Jefferson M, Melvin CL, Rice L, Chukwuka KM. Provider advice about weight loss in a primary care sample of obese and overweight patients. J Prim Care Community Health. 2017;8(4):239–46.
Post RE, Mainous AG, Gregorie SH, Knoll ME, Diaz VA, Saxena SK. The influence of physician acknowledgement of patients, weight status on patient perceptions of overweight and obesity in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(4):316–21.
Aveyard P, Lewis A, Tearne S, Hood K, Christian-Brown A, Adab P, et al. Screening and brief interventions for obesity in primary care: a parallel, two-arm, randomised trial. Lancet. 2016;388:2492–500.
Retat M, Pimpin L, Webber L, Jaccard A, Lewis A, Tearne S, et al. Screening and brief intervention for obesity in primary care: cost-effectiveness analysis in the BWeL trial. Int J Obes. 2019;43(1):2066–75.
Jackson SE, Wardle J, Johnson F, Finer N, Beeken RJ. The impact of a health professional recommendation on weight loss attempts in overweight and obese British adults: a cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e003693.
Rose SA, Poynter PS, Anderson JW, Noar SM, Conigliaro J. Physician weight loss advice and patient weight loss behaviour change: a literature review and meta-analysis of survey data. Int J Obes. 2013;37(1):118–28.
Logue J, Allardice G, Gillies M, Forde L, Morrison DS. Outcomes of a specialist weight management programme in the UK National Health Services: prospective study of 1838 patients. BMJ Open. 2014;4(1):e003747.
Blane DN, Macdonald S, O’Donnell CA. What works and why in the identification and referral of adults with comorbid in primary care: a realistic review. Obes Rev. 2020;41(4):e12979.
Blane DN, Macdonald S, Morrison D, O’Donnell CA. The role of primary care in adult weight management: qualitative interviews with key stakeholders in weight management services. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):764.
Public Health England. Let’s talk about weight: A step-by-step guide to brief interventions with adults for health and care professional. 2017 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/620405/weight_management_toolkit_Let_s_talk_about_weight.pdf. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
Brown J, West R, Angus C, Beard E, Brennan A, Drummond C, et al. Comparison of brief interventions in primary care on smoking and excessive alcohol consumption: a population survey in England. Br J Gen Pract. 2016;66(642):1–9.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alcohol-use disorders: Diagnosis, assessment and management of harmful drinking (high-risk drinking) and alcohol dependence [clinical guideline: CG115]. 2011. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg115/chapter/1-Guidance. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Stop smoking interventions and services [NICE guideline NG92]. 2019. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng92/chapter/Recommendations#engaging-with-people-who-smoke. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
Torti J, Luig T, Borowitz M, Johnson JA, Sharma AM, Campbell-Scherer DL. The 5As team patient study. Patient perspectives on the role of primary care in obesity management. BMC Fam Pract. 2017;18:19.
Tham M, Young D. The role of the general practitioner in weight management in primary care: a cross-sectional study in general practice. BMC Fam Pract. 2008;15(9):66.
McHale CT, Laidlaw AH, Cecil JE. Primary care patient and practitioner views of weight and weight-related discussion: a mixed-method study. BMJ Open. 2019;10:e034023.
Laidlaw A, Napier C, Neville F, Collinson A, Cecil JE. Talking about weight talk: primary care practitioner knowledge, attitudes, and practice. J Commun Healthc. 2019;12(3/4):145–53.
Hooper L, Anderson AS, Birch J, Forster AS, Rosenberg G, Bauld L, Vohra J. Public awareness and healthcare professional advice for obesity as a risk factor for cancer in the UK: a cross-sectional survey. J Public Health. 2017;40(4):797–805.
Booth HP, Prevost AT, Guilliford MC. Access to weight reduction interventions for overweight and obese patients in UK primary care: population-based cohort study. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e006642.
McLaughlin JC, Hamilton K, Kipping R. Epidemiology of adult overweight recording and management by UK GPs: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2017;67(663):676–83.
Abid A, Galuska D, Khan LK, Gillespie C, Ford ES, Serdula MK. Are healthcare professionals advising obese patient’s obese patients to lose weight? A trend analysis. Med Gen Med. 2005;7(4):10.
Kirk SF, Tytus R, Tsuyuki RT, Sharma AM. Weight management experiences of overweight and obese Canadian adults: Findings from a national survey. Chronic Dis Inj Can. 2012;32(2):63–9.
Nicholson BD, Ayeyard P, Bankhead CR, Hamilton W, Hobbs FDR, Lay-Flurrie S. Determinants and extent of weight recording in UK primary care: an analysis of 5 million adults’ electronic health records from 2000 to 2017. BMC Med. 2019;17:222.
Michie S. Talking to primary care patients about weight: a study of GPs and practice nurses in the UK. Psychol Health Med. 2007;12(5):521–5.
Ananthakumar T, Jones NR, Hinton L, Aveyard P. Clinical encounters about obesity: systematic review of patients’ perspectives. Clin Obes. 2020;10(1):12347.
Laidlaw A, McHale C, Locke H, Cecil J. Talk weight: an observational study of communication about patient weight in primary care consultation. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2015;16(3):309–15.
Blane DN, McLoone P, Morrison D, Macdonald S, O’Donnell CA. Patient and practice characteristics predicting attendance and completion at a specialist weight management service in the UK: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e018286.
Rosenberg G, Crawford C, Bullock S, Petty R, Vohra J. Smoking cessation in primary care: a cross-sectional survey of primary care health practitioners in the UK and the use of very brief advice. 2019. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/tobacco_pc_report_to_publish_-_full12.pdf. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
National Health Service Clinical Commissioners. About CCGs. https://www.nhscc.org/ccgs/. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
National Health Services Wales. Structure. http://www.wales.nhs.uk/nhswalesaboutus/structure. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
National Health Service Scotland. About NHS Scotland. https://www.scot.nhs.uk/about-nhs-scotland/. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
Bos-Touwen ID, Trappenburg JCA, van der Wulp I, Schuurmans MK, de Wit NJ. Patient factors that influence clinical decision making in self-management support: a clinical vignette study. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171251.
Veloski J, Tai S, Evans AS, Nash DB. Clinical vignette-based surveys: a took for assessing physician practice variation. Am J Med Qual. 2005;20(3):151–7.
Peabody JW, Luck J, Glassman P, Jain S, Hansen J, Spell M, Lee M. Measuring the quality of physician practice by using clinical vignettes: a prospective validation study. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(10):771–80.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: identification, assessment and management [Clinical guidelines, CG189]. 2014. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg189. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Indicators for the NICE menu for the Quality and Outcomes Framework [Area Indicator: Obesity and overweight; Indicator: NM128]. 2015. https://www.nice.org.uk/Media/Default/Standards-and-indicators/QOF%20Indicator%20Key%20documents/nm128-obesity-register-nice-guidance.pdf. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
Royal Colleague of Physicians. Action on obesity: Comprehensive care for all, reporting of a working party. 2015. https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/projects/outputs/action-obesity-comprehensive-care-all. Last accessed 6 June 2020.
Dewhurst A, Peters S, Devereux-Fitzgerald A, Hart J. Physicians’ views and experiences of discussing weight management with routine clinical consultations: a thematic synthesis. Patient Educ Couns. 2017;100(5):897–908.
Blackburn M, Stathi A, Keogh E, Ecclestone, et al. Raising the topic of weight in general practice: Perspectives of GPS and primary care nurses. BMJ Open. 2015;5(8):e008546.
Leverence RR, Williams RL, Sussman A, Crabtree RF, Net Clinicians RIOS. Obesity counselling and guidelines in primary care: a qualitative study. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(4):334–9.
Nolan C, Dehan A, Wylie A, Jones R. Practice nurses and obesity: professional and practice-based factors affecting role adequacy and role legitimacy. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2012;13(4):353–63.
Blackburn M, Stathi A. Moral discourse in general practitioners’ accounts of obesity communication. Soc Sci Med. 2019;230:166–73.
Mazza D, McCarthy E, Carey M, Turner L, Harris M. “90% of the time, it’s not just weight”: general practitioner and practice staff perspectives regarding the barriers and enables to obesity guideline implementation. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2019;13(4):398–403.
Schmied VA, Duff M, Dahlen HG, Mills AE, Kolt GS. ‘Not waving but drowning’: a study of the experiences and concerns of midwives and other health professionals caring for obese childbearing women. Midwifery. 2011;27(4):424–30.
Mercer SW, Tessier S. A qualitative study of general practitioners’ and practice nurses attitude and obesity management in primary care. Health Bull (Edinb). 2001;59(4):248–53.
van Dillen SME, Hiddink GJ. To what extent do primary care practice nurses act as case managers lifestyle counselling regarding weight management? A systematic review. BMC Fam Pract. 2014;15:197.
Epstein L. A qualitative study of GPs’ views of treating obesity. Br J Gen Pract. 2005;55(519):750–4.
Kahan SI. Practical strategies for engaging individuals with obesity in primary care. Mayo Clin Proc. 2018;93(3):351–9.
Tang JW, Kushner RF, Cameron KA, Hicks B, Cooper AJ, Baker DW. Electronic tools to assist with identification and counselling for overweight patients: a randomised controlled trial. J Gen Inter Med. 2012;27(8):933–9.
O’Donnell A, Angus C, Hanratty B, Hamilton FL, Petersen I, Kaner E. Impact of the introduction and withdrawal of financial incentives on the delivery of alcohol screening and brief advice in English primary health care: an interrupted time-series analysis. Addiction. 2020;115(1):49–60.
Hamilton F, Greaves F, Majeed A, Millett C. Effectiveness of providing financial incentives to healthcare professionals for smoking cessation activities: systematic review. Tob Control. 2013;22(1):3–8.