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Table 1 Patient characteristics, top 10 symptoms & diseases and top 10 prescriptions of the cohort from 2013 to 2016

From: Detection of primary Sjögren’s syndrome in primary care: developing a classification model with the use of routine healthcare data and machine learning

  Cohort 2013–2016 (N = 930,590)
  Non-pSS (N = 929,179) pSS (N = 1411)
Female (%) 487,657 (52.5) 1014 (71.9)
Mean age female ± SD 45.9 ± 22.3 60.5 ± 16.9
Mean age male ± SD 45.0 ± 22.3 64.0 ± 15.9
ICPC top 10 Female non-pSS Male non-pSS Female pSS Male pSS
  < 45 years (N = 219,619) > 45 years (N = 268,038) All ages (N = 441,522) < 45 years (N = 182) > 45 years (N = 832) All ages (N = 397)
1. General weakness (A04) No disease (A97) No disease (A97) General weakness (A04) General weakness (A04) No disease (A97)
2. No disease (A97) High blood pressure (K86) High blood pressure (K86) No disease (A97) No disease (A97) General weakness (A04)
3. Constipation (D12) General weakness (A04) General weakness (A04) Stomach pain (D02) Other general disease (A99) Other general diseases (A99)
4. Generalized abd. Pain (D01) Other general disease (A99) Other general disease (A99) Allergy (A12) Allergy (A12) Abnormal results (A91)
5. Allergy (A12) Abnormal results (A91) Excessive ear wax (H81) Other local abd. Pain (D06) High blood pressure (K86) Stomach pain (D02)
6. Fever (A03) Stomach pain (D02) Allergy (A12) Other general sympt. (A29) Stomach pain (D02) Constipation (D12)
7. Refractive errors (F91) Other general sympt. (A29) Abnormal results (A91) Constipation (D12) Abnormal results (A91) High blood pressure (K86)
8. Other general disease (A99) Excessive ear wax (H81) Stomach pain (D02) Accident/injury (A80) Adverse effect meds (A85) Other local abd. Pain (D06)
9. Other local abd. Pain (D06) Allergy (A12) Refractive errors (F91) Iron deficiency anemia (B80) Other general sympt. (A29) Abnormal sensations eye (F13)
10. Upper resp. infection (R74) Other local abd. Pain (D06) Asthma (R96) Irritable bowel syndr. (D93) Other local abd. Pain (D06) Allergy (A12)
ATC-3 top 10 Female non-pSS Male non-pSS Female pSS Male pSS
  < 45 years (N = 219,619) > 45 years (N = 268,038) All ages (N = 441,522) < 45 years (N = 182) > 45 years (N = 832) All ages (N = 397)
1. Hormonal contraceptives (G03A) Peptic ulcer and GORD (A02B) Lipid modifying agents (C10A) Hormonal contraceptives (G03A) Peptic ulcer and GORD (A02B) Peptic ulcer and GORD (A02B)
2. Antidepressants (N06A) Lipid modifying agents (C10A) Antithrombotic agents (B01A) Antidepressants (N06A) Lipid modifying agents (C10A) Heparin group (B01A)
3. Antihistamines (R06A) Beta blocking agents (C07A) Peptic ulcer and GORD (A02B) Peptic ulcer and GORD (A02B) Antithrombotic agents (B01A) Lipid modifying agents (C10A)
4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products, NS (M01A) Antithrombotic agents (B01A) Beta blocking agents (C07A) Anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products, NS (M01A) Other ophthalmologicals (S01X) Beta blocking agents (C07A)
5. Decongestants and other nasal preparations for topical use (R01A) Antidepressants (N06A) Blood glucose lowering drugs, excl insulins (A10B) Other ophthalmologicals (S01X) Beta blocking agents (C07A) ACE inhibitors, plain (C09A)
6. Corticosteroids, plain (D07A) Blood glucose lowering drugs, excl insulins (A10B) ACE inhibitors, plain (C09A) Decongestants and other nasal preparations for topical use (R01A) Antidepressants (N06A) Other ophthalmologicals (S01X)
7. Adrenergics, inhalants (R03A) ACE inhibitors, plain (C09A) Antidepressants (N06A) Anxyiolytics (N05B) Hypnotics and sedatives (N05C) Drugs used in benign prostatic hypertrophy (G04C)
8. Beta-lactam antibacterials (J01C) Anxyiolytics (N05B) Anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products, NS (M01A) Antihistamines (R06A) Blood glucose lowering drugs, excl insulins (A10B) Blood glucose lowering drugs, excl insulins (A10B)
9. Drugs for constipation (A06A) Anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products, NS (M01A) Adrenergics, inhalants (R03A) Opioids (N02A) Opioids (N02A) Selective calcium channel blockers, vascular (C08C)
10. Peptic ulcer and GORD (A02B) Hypnotics and sedatives (N05C) Selective calcium channel blockers, vascular (C08C) Corticosteroids, plain (D07A) Calcium (A12A) Anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products, NS (M01A)