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Table 3 Example of how behavior change techniques can be used to build an intervention targeting TDF domains related to barriers to reducing imaging for LBP

From: Barriers to following imaging guidelines for the treatment and management of patients with low-back pain in primary care: a qualitative assessment guided by the Theoretical Domains Framework

Barrier Domains Behavior Change Techniques*/Intervention Components
Patient demand Beliefs about consequences
(Imaging reassures patients)
5.3 Information about social and environmental consequences
Inform clinicians that patients are frustrated about imaging findings that “don’t show anything”
  Beliefs about capabilities
(It is difficult to convince patients that imaging isn’t useful)
8.1 Behavioral practice
Use role-play exercise in training physicians to use a new tool to facilitate conversation about why images aren’t useful
  Social influences (patients pressure me for images) 3.1. Social support
Peer counselling or consults established to help work through issues with insistent patients
  1. We have chosen BCTs from among those with “strong” evidence links to each TDF domain in the table