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Table 1 Characteristics of immigrants with and without a regular health care provider (n = 14,077)

From: Utilization of healthcare by immigrants in Canada: a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey

  n (%) Has a regular health
care provider
p-value
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
Independent variables
Primary exposure
 Time since immigration     < 0.001
  < 10 years 3371 (23.9) 2421 (20.4) 950 (42.7)  
  ≥ 10 years 10,705 (76.1) 9430 (79.6) 1276 (57.3)  
Predisposing factors
 Sex
  Male 6883 (48.9) 5568 (47.0) 1315 (59.1) < 0.001
  Female 7184 (51.1) 6283 (53.0) 911 (40.9)  
 Age     < 0.001
  18–39 years 4443 (31.6) 3216 (27.1) 1226 (55.1)  
  40–64 years 6460 (45.9) 5631 (47.5) 828 (37.2)  
  65–79 years 2549 (18.1) 2407 (20.3) 142 (6.4)  
  ≥ 80 years 625 (4.4) 596 (5.0) 29 (1.3)  
 Region of residencea     0.106
  Western Canada 4577 (32.5) 3896 (32.9) 681 (30.6)  
  Central Canada 9381 (66.6) 7855 (66.3) 1526 (68.6)  
  Atlantic Canada and Northern Territories 119 (0.8) 101 (0.8) 18 (0.8)  
 Marital status     < 0.001
  Single 2443 (17.4) 1687 (14.3) 756 (34.0)  
  Widowed/divorced/separated 1925 (13.7) 1673 (14.2) 251 (11.3)  
  Married or common-law 9650 (68.8) 8434 (71.5) 1216 (54.7)  
 Cultural/racial background     < 0.001
  White 4912 (35.3) 4240 (36.2) 672 (30.5)  
  Non-white 9018 (64.7) 7484 (63.8) 1534 (69.5)  
 Sense of belonging to local community     < 0.001
  Very weak 1006 (7.6) 790 (7.2) 216 (9.9)  
  Somewhat weak 3055 (23.1) 2422 (21.9) 632 (29.0)  
  Somewhat strong 6390 (48.3) 5432 (49.2) 959 (44.0)  
  Very strong 2774 (21.0) 2403 (21.8) 371 (17.0)  
Enabling factors
 Total household income     < 0.001
  No income or less than $20,000 1036 (7.4) 737 (6.2) 298 (13.4)  
  $20,000–$39,999 2363 (16.8) 1947 (16.4) 416 (18.7)  
  $40,000–$59,999 2290 (16.3) 1897 (16.0) 393 (17.7)  
  $60,000–$79,999 2156 (15.3) 1844 (15.6) 312 (14.0)  
  $80,000 or more 6227 (44.3) 5422 (45.8) 805 (36.2)  
 Education     < 0.001
  Less than secondary school 1342 (9.7) 1215 (10.4) 127 (5.8)  
  Secondary school 2747 (19.9) 2311 (19.9) 436 (19.9)  
  Post-secondary 9736 (70.4) 8103 (69.7) 1633 (74.3)  
 Knowledge of official languages     < 0.001
  Not proficient in official languages 590 (4.2) 542 (4.6) 48 (2.2)  
  Proficient in official languages 13,479 (95.8) 11,307 (95.4) 2172 (97.8)  
 Insurance for prescription medications     < 0.001
  No insurance 3886 (27.9) 3194 (27.1) 691 (32.0)  
  Insurance 10,045 (72.1) 8573 (72.9) 1472 (68.0)  
Need factors
 Perceived health     < 0.001
  Poor 474 (3.4) 448 (3.8) 25 (1.1)  
  Fair 1189 (8.5) 1067 (9.0) 122 (5.5)  
  Good 4458 (31.8) 3855 (32.7) 603 (27.1)  
  Very good 4521 (32.2) 3747 (31.8) 773 (34.8)  
  Excellent 3385 (24.1) 2684 (22.7) 701 (31.5)  
 Number of medical conditions     < 0.001
  Zero 5009 (35.6) 3810 (32.1) 1199 (53.9)  
  One 3328 (23.6) 2771 (23.4) 558 (25.1)  
  Two 1969 (14.0) 1741 (14.7) 228 (10.3)  
  Three or more 3770 (26.8) 3530 (29.8) 241 (10.8)  
  1. aWestern Canada includes British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Central Canada includes Ontario and Quebec, Atlantic and North includes remaining provinces and territories