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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted means, and β coefficients of EQ5D VAS across various predictors

From: How does multimorbidity affect middle-aged adults? A cross-sectional survey in the Singapore primary healthcare setting

Predictor Variables Un adjusted mean (SD) Adjusted mean (SD) β 95% C.I p-value
No. of chronic condition(s)
 1 or 2 68.5 (16.0) 69.6 (2.5) REFERENCE
 ≥ 3 64.9 (16.8) 66.5 (2.5) −0.045 (0.102, 0.12) 0.12
Age (years)
 < 50 62.8 (19.1) 63.2 (3.2) −0.100 (− 0.199. -0.001) 0.05
 50–54 68.8 (16.2) 71.4 (3.3) 0.021 (−0.058, 0.101) 0.60
 55–59 66.5 (16.8) 68.0 (2.7) −0.027 (−0.095, 0.041) 0.43
 60–64 68.0 (15.0) 69.9 (2.7) REFERENCE
Sex
 Male 66.8 (16.1) 67.8 (2.6) REFERENCE
 Female 67.1 (16.7) 68.3 (2.4) 0.006 (0.053, 0.066) 0.84
Ethnicity
 Chinese 66.8 (16.2) 67.4 (2.5) REFERENCE
 Non-Chinese 67.9 (17.5) 68.7 (2.9) 0.019 (0.064, 0.101) 0.66
Main Spoken Language
 English 67.4 (16.3) 69.4 (2.8) REFERENCE
 Mandarin 66.4 (16.4) 66.8 (2.7) −0.038 (−0.110, 0.034) 0.31
 Malay/Tamil/ Others 67.8 (16.9) 68.0 (3.1) −0.021 (−0.106, 0.065) 0.64
Marital Status
 Married 67.3 (16.0) 68.7 (2.8) REFERENCE
 Othersa 65.8 (18.0) 67.4 (2.6) −0.018 (−0.097, 0.061) 0.65
Education
 Primary/ No formal 67.8 (16.4) 70.1 (3.0) REFERENCE
 Secondary 67.3 (15.7) 68.6 (2.8) −0.022 (−0.091,0.048) 0.54
 Post-secondary 65.5 (17.7) 65.5 (2.6) −0.068 (− 0.156, 0.020) 0.13
Employment
 Employed 67.1 (16.5) 68.6 (2.4) REFERENCE
 Unemployed/ Retired 66.7 (16.3) 67.5 (2.7) −0.016 (−0.081, 0.049) 0.62
Monthly Household Income
 < $2000 64.7 (18.0) 64.8 (2.8) REFERENCE
 $2000–$3999 68.8 (14.6) 70.4 (2.9) 0.083 (−0.002, 0.168) 0.06
 $4000–$5999 66.0 (18.0) 68.2 (3.2) 0.051 (−0.042, 0.144) 0.28
 ≥ $6000 68.6 (14.9) 70.7 (3.6) 0.087 (−0.015, 0.189) 0.09
 Not disclosed 66.5 (16.7) 66.4 (2.9) 0.025 (−0.066, 0.116) 0.59
Dwelling
 Institution/ HDB 1–3 room 68.9 (19.0) 70.0 (2.7) REFERENCE
 HDB 4 room 65.1 (16.1) 65.9 (2.7) −0.061 (−0.135, 0.013) 0.11
 Other dwellingsb 67.9 (14.6) 68.3 (2.9) −0.026 (− 0.106, 0.054) 0.53
Home Ownership
 Owner-occupied 67.2 (15.8) 68.9 (2.3) REFERENCE
 Not owner-occupied 64.7 (21.2) 67.2 (3.4) −0.026 (−0.127, 0.076) 0.62
Living Arrangement
 Living alone 70.3 (21.7) 71.0 (4.1) REFERENCE
 Living with others 66.7 (16.0) 65.2 (1.9) −0.086 (−0.204, 0.033) 0.16
  1. aOther marital status: not married, single, widowed, divorced, and separated
  2. b Other dwellings: HDB 5-room, HDB executive, Housing and Urban Development Company apartment, HDB executive condominium, private condominium, and landed properties
  3. HDB Housing and Development Board
  4. *p-value < 0.05