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Table 1 NPT constructs and sub-constructs as described by Finch et al. [19]

From: Application of normalisation process theory in understanding implementation processes in primary care settings in the UK: a systematic review

  Coherence Cognitive Participation Collective Action Reflexive Monitoring
Construct The process and work of sense making and understanding that individuals and organisations undertake that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of a practice The process and work that individuals undertake to promote engagement with the new practice The work done by individuals and organisations to enact the new practice. The work inherent to formal and informal appraisal of new practice, to enable assessment of advantages and disadvantages, developing users comprehension of the effects of a practice
Sub-constructs Differentiation
Do stakeholders see this as a new way working?
Do the stakeholders believe they are the correct people to drive forward the implementation?
Interactional workability
Does the intervention make it easier or harder to complete tasks?
Will stakeholders be able to judge the effectiveness of the intervention?
Individual specification
Do individuals understand what tasks the intervention requires of them?
Are they willing and able to engage others in the implementation?
Skill set workability
Do those implementing the intervention have the correct skills and training for the job?
Individual appraisal
How will individuals judge the effectiveness of the intervention?
Communal specification
Do all those involved agree about the purpose of the intervention?
Can stakeholders identify what tasks and activities are required to sustain the intervention?
Relational integration
Do those involved in the implementation have confidence in the new way of working?
Communal appraisal
How will stakeholders collectively judge the effectiveness of the intervention?
Do all the stakeholders grasp the potential benefits and value of the intervention?
Do they believe it is appropriate for them to be involved in the intervention?
Contextual integration
Do local and national resources and policies support the implementation?
Will stakeholders be able to modify the intervention based on evaluation and experience?