|First author, year||Model||Health cond(s)||Sample size (n)||Biophysical measures||Reported findings (with p-values)|
|Junling, 2015||CHCC||HTN||600 group, 604 control||● BP||SBP decreased significantly in both group (p < 0.001) and control (p = 0.001) from baseline to follow-up, although decreases in group > control.|
|DBP decreased significantly in group (p = 0.001) but did not decrease significantly in control.|
|● Physical activity|
|BMI did not change in both.|
|Increases in physical activity in group (p < 0.001) more remarkable than in control.|
|Trento, 2001||SMA / GV||T2DM||56 group, 56 control||● HbA1c||HbA1c stable in group, worsened in control (p < 0.002).|
|● BMI||Tendency toward lower BMI in group (p = 0.06).|
|● HDL||HDL cholesterol initially similar in both but later lower in group only (p < 0.05).|
|● Fasting TG||Trend toward lower TG in group (p = 0.053).|
|Trento, 2002||SMA / GV||T2DM||56 group, 56 control|| ● Dosage of anti-hyperglycemic agents|
● Body wt, BP and CV risk
● Metabolic control:
Dosage of hypoglycemic agents decreased (p < 0.001) among group compared to control.|
Body wt (p < 0.001) and BMI (p < 0.001) decreased in group but not in control.
Similar reductions in BP and CV risk in group vs control, but diff significant only for DBP (p < 0.001).
Significant decrease in HbA1c (p < 0.001) in group.
HDL increased (p < 0.001) in group but not in control. Retinopathy progressed less in group (p = 0.009).
|Trento, 2004||SMA / GV||T2DM (NIDDM)||56 group, 56 control|| ● HbA1c|
● HDL, TG
HbA1c remained stable in group but progressively increased among control (p < 0.001).|
BMI, HDL, TG and Cr improved over 5 yrs. in group, but not significantly different from control.
|Trento, 2005||SMA / GV||T2DM||31 group, 31 control||● HbA1c||HbA1c decreased in both, though not significantly.|
|● Lipids (TC, HDL, TG)||TC decreased in controls (p < 0.05), while HDL increased in group (p = 0.027).|
|● Body wt, BMI||No significant modifications in other clinical variables monitored (body wt, BMI, FBG, insulin dosage, TG, ACR, foot ulcers).|
|● Insulin dosage|
|● Foot ulcers|
|Trento, 2010||SMA / GV||T2DM (NIDDM)||421 group, 394 control|| ● FBG|
FBG, HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL cholesterol, SBP, DBP, and BMI decreased in group from baseline to year 4 compared to control (p < 0.001, for all measures).|
HDL increased in group (p < 0.001).
|● TC, LDL, HDL, TG||
Cr did not change significantly in group.|
BMI, HbA1c, TG, and Cr increased in control, whereas total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol and SBP did not change and DBP decreased.
|Naik, 2011||SMA / GV||T2DM||45 group, 42 control|| ● HbA1c|
Significantly greater improvements in HbA1c immediately following active Intervention and persisted at 1-year follow-up (p = 0.05).|
SBP and BMI were only reported at baseline, but not significantly different between both.
|Capello, 2008||SMA / GV||HTN||58 group (no control)||● BP||Significant effects on SBP and DBP (p < 0.01).|
|Raballo, 2012||SMA / GV||T1DM, T2DM||121 group, 121 control|| ● HbA1c|
● Lipids (TC, HDL, TG)
HbA1c lower in T1DM group than in control (p = 0.001) and not significantly so in T2DM (NS).|
Lower HDL in T1DM control (p = 0.002), but no other significant differences among both.
|Krzywkowski-Mohn, 2008||SMA / GV||T2DM||33 group (no control)||Diabetic clinical indicators:|
|● HbA1c||Lower HbA1c after group intervention (p < 0.05).|
|● LDL||Lower LDL after 18 mos (p < 0.05).|
|● BP||No significant diff. in SBP or DBP after 18 mos.|
|● Retinal exam||Increase in diabetic eye exams.|
|● Foot exam||No diff in diabetic foot exams (96.9% pre + post).|