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Table 4 The discriminative validity of the Evidence-Based Medicine Questionnaire

From: Development and validation of the Evidence Based Medicine Questionnaire (EBMQ) to assess doctors’ knowledge, practice and barriers regarding the implementation of evidence-based medicine in primary care

Item Details of item With EBM training (n = 222) n(%) Without EBM training (n = 98) n(%) Chi-square p-value
Unaware Aware but not used in clinical decision making Have read it but not used in clinical decision making Read and used in clinical decision making Unaware Aware but not used in clinical decision making Have read it but not used in clinical decision making Read and used in clinical decision making
Knowledge Domain (Information sources related to EBM)
 C2 Bandolier 154(69.4) 35(15.8) 19(8.6) 14(6.3) 66(67.3) 13(13.3) 12(12.2) 7(7.1) 1.350 0.717
 C5 DARE 155(18.9) 42(18.9) 16(7.2) 9(4.1) 71(72.4) 15(15.3) 12(12.2) 6.510 0.089
 C6 CEBM 123(56.3) 69(31.1) 17(7.7) 11(5.0) 58(59.2) 22(22.4) 14(14.3) 4(4.1) 5.074 0.166
 C10 ACP 147(66.2) 38(17.1) 24(10.8) 13(5.9) 63(64.3) 16(16.3) 14(14.3) 5(5.1) 0.825 0.844
 C13 InfoClinics 152(68.5) 44(19.8) 18(8.1) 8(3.6) 63(64.3) 16(16.3) 10(10.2) 9(9.2) 4.946 0.176
 C14 CRD 175(78.8) 31(14.0) 15(6.8) 1(0.5) 75(76.5) 12(12.2) 9(9.2) 2(2.0) 2.564 0.464
 C3 EBM 10(4.5) 46(20.7) 66(29.7) 100(45.0) 4(4.1) 28(28.6) 24(24.5) 42(42.9) 2.577 0.462
 C12 BMJ 26(11.7) 43(19.4) 73(32.9) 80(36.0) 10(10.2) 25(25.5) 22(22.4) 41(41.8) 4.442 0.218
Item Details of item With EBM training
(n = 222) n(%)
Without EBM training
(n = 98) n(%)
Chi-square p-value
Never heard and do not understand Do not understand but would like to Understand Never heard and do not understand Do not understand but would like to Understand
Knowledge Domain (Terms related to EBM)
 K1 Systematic review 6(2.7) 12(5.4) 204(91.9) 8(8.2) 8(8.2) 82(83.7) 5.975 0.050
 K2 Meta-analysis 10(4.5) 14(6.3) 198(89.2) 6(6.1) 14(6.3) 198(89.2) 16.837 ≤ 0.001*
 K3 Case-control study 4(1.8) 8(3.6) 210(94.6) 5(5.1) 8(3.1) 90(91.8) 2.746 0.253
 K4 Randomized controlled trial 4(1.8) 7(3.2) 211(95.0) 4(4.1) 1(1.0) 93(94.9) 2.651 0.266
 K5 Relative risk 8(3.6) 25(11.3) 189(85.1) 9(9.2) 16(16.3) 73(74.5) 6.287 0.043*
 K6 Absolute risk 8(3.6) 33(14.9) 181(81.5) 10(10.2) 15(15.3) 73(74.5) 5.699 0.058*
 K7 Odds ratio 11(0.5) 60(27.0) 151(68.0) 14(14.3) 26(26.5) 58(59.2) 8.395 0.015*
 K8 P-value 11(5.0) 38(17.1) 173(77.9) 14(14.3) 19(19.4) 65(66.3) 9.004 0.011*
 K9 Level of evidence 7(3.2) 30(13.5) 185(83.3) 9(9.2) 19(19.4) 70(71.4) 7.686 0.021*
 K10 Number needed to treat 11(5.0) 42(18.5) 170(76.6) 11(11.2) 20(20.4) 67(68.4) 4.640 0.098*
 K11 Confidence interval 17(7.7) 61(27.5) 144(64.9) 21(21.4) 25(25.5) 52(53.1) 12.502 0.002*
 K12 Heterogeneity 21(9.5) 74(33.3) 127(57.2) 22(22.4) 35(35.7) 41(41.8) 11.709 0.003*
 K13 Publication bias 23(10.4) 65(29.3) 134(60.4) 23(23.5) 30(30.6) 45(45.9) 10.703 0.005*
 K14 Test sensitivity and specificity 4(1.8) 25(11.3) 193(86.9) 11(11.2) 13(13.3) 74(75.5) 14.172 ≤ 0.001*
 K15 Positive predictive value 5(2.3) 36(16.2) 181(81.5) 5(2.3) 36(16.2) 181(81.5) 7.415 0.025*
 K16 Clinical effectiveness 10(4.5) 48(21.6) 164(73.9) 16(16.3) 19(19.4) 63(64.3) 12.738 0.002*
Item Details of item With EBM training
(n = 222) n(%)
Without EBM training
(n = 98) n(%)
Chi-square p-value
Disagree Neutral Agree Disagree Neutral Agree
Practice Domain
 P1 I support EBM 1(0.5) 8(3.6) 213(95.9) 2(2.0) 6(6.1) 90(91.8) 2.941 0.230
 P2 I trust the findings from research studies 1(0.5) 37(16.7) 184(82.9) 3(3.1) 13(13.3) 82(83.7) 4.216 0.121
 P3 Reading research papers is important to me 25(11.3) 197(88.7) 4(4.1) 20(20.4) 74(75.5) 14.511 0.001*
 P4 EBM improves my patient care 19(8.6) 203(91.4) 3(3.1) 8(8.2) 87(88.8) 6.862 0.032*
 P5 EBM reduces my workload 22(9.9) 87(39.1) 113(50.9) 21(9.4) 39(17.5) 38(17.1) 8.838 0.012*
 P6 I can implement EBM in my clinical practice 2(0.9) 23(10.3) 197(88.7) 3(1.3) 16(7.2) 79(35.5) 4.537 0.103
 P7 EBM guides my clinical decision making 11(5.0) 211(95.0) 3(3.1) 9(9.2) 86(87.8) 9.130 0.010*
 P8 I prefer to manage patients based on EBM 2(0.9) 36(16.2) 184(82.9) 3(3.1) 25(25.5) 70(71.4) 6.235 0.044*
Barriers Domain
 B1 I am able to assess the quality of research. 35(15.8) 76(34.2) 111(50.0) 17(17.3) 40(40.8) 41(41.8) 1.871 0.392
 B2 I have access to internet to practice EBM 4(1.8) 18(8.1) 200(90.1) 11(11.2) 12(12.2) 75(76.5) 15.573 < 0.001*
 B3 I have time to read research papers 25(11.3) 93(41.9) 104(46.8) 22(22.4) 39(39.8) 37(37.8) 7.142 0.028*
 B4 I have time to practise EBM in my clinic 18(8.1) 60(27.0) 144(64.9) 144(64.9) 17(17.3) 32(32.7) 8.545 0.014*
 B5 My clinic facilities are adequate to support the practice of EBM 47(20.2) 85(38.2) 90(40.5) 34(15.3) 34(15.3) 120(54.0) 6.935 0.031*
 B6 Research articles are easily available to me 50(22.5) 71(32.0) 101(45.5) 40(40.8) 29(29.6) 29(29.6) 12.447 0.002*
 B8 My patients prefers me to practise EBM 28(12.6) 138(62.2) 56(25.2) 15(15.3) 59(60.2) 24(24.5) 0.424 0.809
 B9 My patient believes in information that is based on evidence 35(15.8) 95(42.8) 92(41.4) 11(11.2) 47(48.0) 40(40.8) 1.391 0.499
 B12 My colleagues support the practice of EBM 13(5.9) 84(37.8) 125(56.3) 12(12.2) 36(36.7) 50(51.0) 3.922 1.141
 B13 My organization supports the practice of EBM 12(5.4) 72(32.4) 138(62.2) 8(8.2) 33(33.7) 57(58.2) 1.038 0.595
  1. EBM Evidence-based medicine
  2. *p ≤ 0.05 is significant