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Table 2 Characteristics of 17 studies that included concepts exploring the experience of prescribing opioids to patients with chronic non-malignant pain

From: A qualitative evidence synthesis to explore healthcare professionals’ experience of prescribing opioids to adults with chronic non-malignant pain

BALDACCHINO 2010 [33] SCOTLAND, UK 29 physicians 2 focus groups/19 interviews Framework analysis To describe physicians’ attitudes and experience of prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain with a history of substance abuse.
BARRY 2010 [34] USA 23 physicians Semi-structured interview Grounded theory To identify barriers and facilitators to opioid treatment of chronic non-cancer pain patients
BERG 2009 [35] USA 16 physicians and ‘assistants’ Semi-structured interview Thematic analysis To explore providers’ perceptions of ambiguity, and then to examine their strategies for making diagnostic and treatment decisions to manage chronic pain among patients on methadone maintenance therapy.
(GPs, physicians, physiotherapists, rheumatologists, psychologists, psychiatrist)
Semi-structured interview Discourse Analysis To explore experiences of fibromyalgia management, namely diagnostic approach, therapeutic management and the health professional-patient relationship.
ESQUIBEL 2014 [37] USA 21 family practitioners In-depth interviews Immersion-crystallization To explore the experiences of adults receiving opioid therapy for relief of chronic non-cancer pain and that of their physicians
FONTANA 2008 [38] USA 9 advanced practice nurses Semi-structured interview No specific method identified To critically examine subjective factors that influence prescribing practices of registered nurses for patients with chronic non-malignant pain.
GOOBERMAN-HILL 2011 [39] UK 27 general practitioners Semi-structured interview Thematic analysis To explore GPs’ opinions about opioids and decision-making processes when prescribing ‘strong’ opioids for chronic joint pain.
KAASALAINEN 2007 [40] CANADA 66 mixed HCPs:
(Physicians (n = 9), registered practical nurses)
Semi-structured interviews/focus groups Grounded theory To explore the decision-making process of pain management of physicians and nurses and how their attitudes affect decisions about prescribing and administering pain medications among older adults in long-term care.
KAASALAINEN 2010B [42] CANADA 53 Mixed HCPs:
(15 Registered nurses, 6 registered practical nurses, 4 physicians, 20 unlicensed care practitioners, 2 pharmacists, 2 physiotherapists, 4 administrators)
6 focus groups/interviews Case-study analysis To: (1) explore barriers to pain management and those associated with implementing a pain management program in long-term care (LTC); (2) to develop an inter-professional approach to improve pain management in LTC.
KILARU 2014 [41] USA 61 emergency physicians Semi-structured interview Grounded theory To identify key themes regarding emergency physicians’ definition, awareness, use, and opinions of opioid prescribing guidelines.
KREBS 2014 [43] USA 14 primary care physicians Semi-structured interview Immersion-crystallisation To understand physicians’ and patients’ perspectives on recommended opioid management practices and to identify potential barriers to and facilitators of guideline-concordant opioid management in primary care.
MCCRORIE 2015 [44] UK 15 general practitioners 2 focus groups Grounded theory To understand the processes which bring about and perpetuate long-term prescribing of opioids for chronic, non-cancer pain.
RUIZ 2010 [45] USA 19 mixed HCPs:
(14 primary care physicians, 5 nurse practitioners)
3 focus groups 9 semi-structured interviews Grounded theory To explore the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic non-malignant pain management in older people.
SEAMARK 2013 [46] UK 22 general practitioners Interviews/focus groups Thematic analysis To describe the factors influencing GPs’ prescribing of strong opioid drugs for chronic non cancer pain.
SIEDLECKI 2014 [47] USA 48 nurses Interviews Grounded theory To explore and understand nurses’ assessment and decision-making behaviours related to the care of patients with chronic pain in the acute care setting.
SPITZ 2011 [48] USA 26 Mixed HCPs:
(23 physicians, 3 nurse practitioners)
Focus groups Thematic analysis To describe primary care providers’ experiences and attitudes towards, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators to prescribing opioids as a treatment for chronic pain among older adults.
STARRELS 2014 [49] USA 28 physicians Open ended telephone interview Grounded theory To understand primary care providers’ experiences, beliefs and attitudes about using opioid treatment agreements for patients with chronic pain.