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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: Patient capacity and constraints in the experience of chronic disease: a qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis

Author Year Country Condition(s) Theoretical framework Sampling procedure Data collection Data analysis
Aspin 2012 Australia Chronic conditions - at least one index condition of diabetes, COPD, or CHF None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-structured interviews Content Analysis
Audulv 2013 Sweden Ischemic heart disease rheumatic disease, chronic renal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and diabetes None Reported Purposive Semi-Structured Interviews. Interpretive Descriptive Analysis
Bair 2009 USA comorbid chronic musculoskeletal pain and depression None Reported Random Sampling of randomized control trial participants Focus Groups Thematic Analysis
Barker 2006 Canada Stroke The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)(World Health Organization [WHO], 2001) and Continuity Theory Sub-Sampling from lareger study In-depth interviews Constant comparative analysis
Bayliss 2008 USA Multimorbidity - at a minimum, the combined conditions of diabetes, depression and osteoarthritis None Reported Randomly selected from larger survey Sampling of patients that met inclusion critieria Semi-Structured Interviews Thematic Analysis and Constant Comparison
Beauregard 2005 Canada HIV/AIDS None Reported Convenience Sampling Interviews Phenomenologic analysis
Becker 2004 USA All chronic conditions; most common diabetes, asthma, heart disease and hypertension None Reported Purposive Sampling 3 in-depth Interviews over a one year period Krieger Methodology and Narrative Analysis
Becker 2003 USA Multiple conditions; most common diabetes, asthma, heart disease, or hypertension None Reported Convenience Sampling 3 in-depth interviews over 1 year Content Analysis Stratified by Income Category
Becker 2003 USA Chronic disease in general; most common diabetes, asthma, and heart disease or hypertension None Reported Convenience Sampling 3 in-depth interviews over 1 year Content Analysis and Case-by-Case Narrative Analysis
Beverly 2011 USA Type 2 Diabetes with comorbid conditions None Reported Intensity (Purposive) Sampling Focus Groups Thematic Analysis
Boeckxstaens 2012 Belgium COPD None Reported Convenience Sampling Interviews Thematic Analysis
Bova 2010 USA Hepatitis C AND HIV None Reported Purposive Sampling and Theoretical Sampling Semi-structured face-to-face interviews Qualitative Descriptive Methods and Content Analysis
Bower 2012 UK Multimorbidity (Diabetes, COPD, CHD, arthritis and depression, cancer, thyroid disease, hypertension) Common sense model of illness Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Framework Analysis - Constant Comparison
Bremander 2009 Sweden Chronic pain None Reported Patients who completed a pain rehabilitation program Interview Grounded Theory
Burles 2013 Canada Anorexia, breast cancer, depression, endometriosis, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, primary hypoadrenalism and secondary hypothyroidism, and a malignant brain tumour None Reported Snowball Sampling Interpretive, Hermeneutic Phenomenological Interviews and Photovoice Holistic and Cross-Sectional Data Analysis Guided by Hermeneutical Phenomenolgy
Carey 2005 USA Insomnia None Reported Purposive Sampling Focus Groups Survey Development/Thematic Analysis
Clarke 2008 Canada Multiple Chronic Conditions Symbolic interactionism Purposive Sampling In-depth interviews Grounded Theory
Conrad 2006 Australia Chronic hepatitis C None Reported Purposive; snowball Semi-structured interviews and focus groups Grounded Theory
Corsner 2011 USA MCC (≥2: Diabetes, Chronic Dulmonary Disease (i.e., asthma, COPD, emphysema), CHF, coronary artery disease, osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal disorder, and/or ongoing cancer/neoplasm None Reported Convenience Sampling Focus Groups (supplemented with chart reviews) Content Analysis
Coty 2013 USA Rheumatoid Arthritis Self-regulation Theory Purposive Sampling of patients from larger quantitative study Semi-Structured Telephone Interviews Phenomenological Analysis (Colaizzi)
Drew 2006 USA Chronic Lyme Disease None Reported Purposive Sampling In-Depth Interview Colazzi Phenomenology
Edmonds 2007 UK Multiple sclerosis None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-structured interview Constant comparison
Elliott 2007 USA Multiple Chronic Conditions None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Constant Comparison
Ellis 2013 UK Cancer Not Reported Patient attending a hospice day care service was recruited (via hospice staff) and asked to invite their family members to be involved in the research Repeat, in-depth interviews and participant observation on a hospice inpatient ward Thematic Analysis
Eton 2012 USA Multiple Chronic Conditions Normalization Process Theory informed the interview guide - no theoretical framework guided the analysis Convenience Sampling of patients already participating in a medication therapy management program Semi-Structured Interviews Ritchie and Lewis’ framework Analysis
Feldman 2003 USA Arthritis Ecological Framework Convenience Sampling Peer support groups Not Reported
Fisher 2007 USA Chronic Pain None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Thematic Analysis
Gallant 2007 USA Arthritis, diabetes, and/or heart disease Social cognitive theory and others Purposive Sampling Focus Groups Thematic Analysis
Gelling 2009 UK Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus Berger and Luckmann Purposive and Theoretical Sampling Semi-structured interviews and written personal biographies Grounded Theory
Gustafsson 2012 Australia Stroke None Reported Single case study E-mail conversations Narrative Analysis
Hodgson 2011 UK Severe and Enduring Mental Illness None Reported Purposive Sampling One-to-one interviews Thematic Analysis
Jakobsen 2001 Norway Any Chronic Condition. Included: rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, ankylosing spondylitis, lupus, heart disease, and lower back pain. None Reported Purposive Sampling Interviews and observations of workplaces Phenomenological Analysis
Janevic 2014 USA Asthma AND Type 2 diabetes, heart disease or arthritis requiring daily medication for at least 1 year, or report a significant effect of arthritis on daily functioning None overall, but, the frameworks of social support and resilience were called upon to inform the study Quota Sampling In-Person Semi-Structured Interview General Inductive Approach
Janke 2012 USA Chronic Pain in Obesity None Reported Purposive Sampling Individual or small group interviews Constant Comparative Method
Janke 2008 USA Hepatitis C None Reported Convenience Sampling Focus Groups Grounded Theory
Jeon 2012 Australia Multiple chronic conditions Explanatory Model of Illness Purposive criteria selected from a previous survey Interview by phone Content Analysis
Jeon 2010 Australia Type 2 Diabetes, Chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Explanatory Model of Illness Purposive Sampling Semi-structured in-depth interviews Content Analysis
Jeon 2009 Australia Type 2 Diabetes, Chronic Heart Failure, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease None Reported Purposive for patients; convenience for carers; recruited through referrals Semi-structured, in-depth interviews Content Analysis
Jerant 2005 USA Arthritis, asthma, COPD, CHF, depression, and DM None Reported Convenience Sampling Focus Groups Grounded Theory
Jones 2012 USA Heart Failure None Reported Purposive Sampling Interviews General Inductive Approach
Jowsey 2009 Australia Co-morbid chronic illness including DM, COPD and/or CHF None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups Content Analysis
Keating 2011 Australia COPD None reported Patients who declined or quit participating in a COPD program Semi-structured interviews Thematic Analysis
Kirby 2013 Australia Chronic illness The Chronic Care Model Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Grounded Theory
Kneck 2012 Sweden Diabetes None reported Selective Sampling Approach Interview Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Method
Kouwenhoven 2011 Norway Stroke survivors with early depressive symptoms None reported Systematic Repeated in-depth interviews Hermeneutic Phenomenology
Kvigne 2004 Norway Stroke None reported Purposive Sampling Three In-depth Interviews (in hospital, 6-months and 1 year) Giorgi’s (1985) Phenomenological Four-step < =Method
Loeb 2003 USA Multiple Chronic Conditions None Reported Purposive Sampling Focus Groups Thematic and Content Analyses
Lopez-Vargas 2014 Australia CKD None Reported Purposive Sampling Focus Group Grounded Theory
Lovely 2013 USA Malignant Brain Tumor None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Thematic Analysis
Manias 2007 Australia Osteoarthritis and at least one other comorbidity None Reported Purposive for patients and conveience for health professionals Focus groups and individual interviews Framework Analysis
Martini 2012 New Zealand Gout None reported Convenience Sampling Semi-structured interviews General Inductive Thematic Approach
Matthias 2010 USA Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain None Reported Purposive Sampling of a subset of participants from previous trial Focus Groups Thematic Content Analysis
McCann 2012 USA Heart disease, diabetes, or osteoporosis Feminism, Symbolic interactionism. Social networks, social convoy model Random Sampling Followed by Convenience Sampling 20-min structured telephone interview and 2 face to face follow-up interviews. Grounded Theory
McCreaddie 2011 UK Hepatitis C None Reported Purposive and, thereafter, Theoretical Sampling Interviews with patients; focus groups with medical professional staff Constructivist grounded theory; Constant Comparison
Medina 2011 USA Chronic disease (included patients had post stroke/diabetes, heart disease/post-TIA, and Parkinson’s/arthritis The Model of Human Occupation Purposive Sampling; Key Informants Two 90-min Face-to-Face Interviews Phenomenological
Miles 2005 UK Chronic Pain None Reported Theoretical Sampling Open-ended interviews Grounded Theory
Mishra 2011 USA Multiple Chronic Conditions Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of behavior Purposive Sampling Focus Groups Phenomenological; Template Analysis
Monroe 2013 USA HIV AND (diabetes or hypertension) None reported Self-referral from flyers and through referral from medical providers Focus Group Editing Style Analysis
Morris 2011 UK Multiple long-term conditions - irritable bowel syndrome; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and diabetes None Reported Purposive Sampling Initial face-to-face interviews, telephone follow-ups and final face-to-face interviews Narrative Analysis
Munce 2014 Canada Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Knowledge to Action framework Purposive Sampling Semi-structured telephone interviews Thematic Analysis
Nakano 2010 USA Stroke survivor with aphasia None Reported Convenience Sampling; single patient case study In-Depth Interview Over Time Not Reported
Nelson 2013 UK Psoriasis None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Framework Analysis
Newbould 2012 UK Various chronic conditions None Reported Samplingd by voluntary participation from patients from integrated care pilot Semi-structured Interviews Lofland and Lofland - Thematic analysis
Newcomb 2010 USA Asthma None Reported Patients were from a trial of asthma care Semi-Structured Interviews Using a Questionnaire Constant comparative analysis
Noel 2005 USA Multiple Chronic Conditions Von Korff’s Collaborative Management of Chronic Illness Care Purposive Sampling Focus Groups Thematic Analysis
O’Hara 2013 UK Type 1 Diabetes None Reported Self-selected and snowball Sampling Semi-structured interviews Grounded Theory
Rifkin 2010 USA Chronic kidney disease None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Thematic Analysis
Roberto 2005 USA Multiple chronic conditions - heart disease, osteoporosis, or diabetes in combination Life-course Theory and a Trajectory Model of Chronic Illness Targeted Random Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Thematic Analysis
Rogerson 2012 Australia CHD and depression None Reported Purposively selected from a previous study post-cardiac hospitalization Semi-structured interviews Content analysis
Sankar 2003 USA HIV None Reported Targeted and snowball Sampling techniques Focus Groups Content and Thematic Analysis
Sav 2013 Australia Chronic conditions None Reported Purposive snowball Sampling Semi-structured in-depth interviews Grounded Theory
Schmutte 2009 USA Serious Mental Illness None Reported Participants were recruited through referrals from mental health providers and fliers. Focus Groups Interpretive Phenomenological Qualitative Data Analytic Strategies
Schoenberg 2003 USA Coronary heart disease and risk factors for CHD e.g. hypertension, diabetes, etc. None Reported Theoretical Sampling Interviews and Focus groups Thematic Analysis
Sells 2009 USA Multiple chronic conditions Temporal Framework Random, stratified Sampling based upon high utilizers vs not 3 Semi-Structured Interviews over 1 year Phenomenological
Simmonds 2013 UK Coronary Heart Disease AND Depression None reported Consecutive Sampling Semi-Structured Interview. All the interviews, were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim Thematic Analysis
Skuladottir 2011 Iceland Chronic Pain (women only) None Reported Theoretical and Volunteer Sampling In-depth interviews Vancouver School of phenomenology
Smith 2012 USA HIV The situated Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (sIMB) model of Care Initiation and Maintenance for chronic diseases Purposive Sampling divided between community clinic and medical outreach services Semi-structured interviews Content Analysis and Emergent Theme Identification
Snelgrove 2013 UK Chronic Low Back Pain IPA and the Enmeshment Model Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interview Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
Söderberg 2001 Sweden Fibromyalgia None Reported Purposive Sampling Narrative Interviews Thematic Content Analysis
Soundy 2007 UK Severe and enduring mental health problems None Reported Purposive maximum variation Sampling Semi-Structured Interview Thematic Analysis
Taylor 2005 USA Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Social Model of Disability Convenience Sampling Focus Groups; Open-Ended Questionairre; Progress Notes Qualitative Comparative Method
Tenhunen 2005 UK Chronic Daily Headache None Reported Purposive Theoretical Sampling; Snowball Sampling Semi-Structured Interview Grounded theory
Thompson 2008 USA Chronic Mental Illness None Reported Purposive Sampling Photovoice and Individual Interview Qualitative Descriptive Method and Content analysis
Thorpe 2014 Australia COPD None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured telephone interviews Content Analysis
Tollefson 2011 Australia Chronic Pain None Reported Purposive Sampling Open-ended conversational-type interview van Manen’s thematic approach
Townsend 2011 Canada Multimorbidity Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice Purposive Sampling In-depth interview, a 2-week self-complete symptom/management diary, and a second in-depth interview conducted approximately 3 weeks after the first Grounded Theory
Treloar 2010 Australia Hepatitis C and opioid addiction None Reported 19 randomly Sampling from a larger survey study; 8 recruited from a specific organization Phone and face to face semi-structured interviews and focus groups Descriptive analysis
Villena 2010 USA Mental illness AND substance abuse None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews Interpretive Hermeneutic Phenomenology
Walden 2009 USA Any chronic condition None Reported Purposive Sampling Individual and Focus Group Interviews; Free Text Survey Comments Thematic Analysis
Warren-Findlow 2008 USA Nonobstructive coronary artery disease None Reported Purposive Sampling Multiple In-Depth Interviews conducted over a 2-year time period Grounded Theory
Wasley 2013 UK Type 1 diabetes None Reported Not reported Semi-structured interview Thematic Composition
Webster 2013 Canada Osteoarthritis None Reported Purposive Sampling utilizing maximum variation and Theoretical Sampling Semi-structured interview. Constructivist Approach to Grounded Theory
Wendorf 2013 USA HIV/AIDS and depression None Reported Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Individual Interviews Grounded Theory
Wilkinson 2012 UK Renal Disease None Reported Purposive Sampling Interviews Thematic Analysis
Williams 2013 Australia Coexisting Diabetes, CKD and Hypertension Modified Health Belief Model Participants in the intervention arm of an RCT, recruited from nephrology and diabetes outpatient clinics Motivational Interviews conducted via telephone. Data consist of notes taken by the nurse conducting the telephone call Thematic Analysis
Williams 2013 Australia Stroke None Reported Purposive case Sampling Semi-structured interviews. Interpretative Phenomenological Approach
Williams 2009 Australia Diabetic kidney disease None Reported Convenience Sampling Individual interview Ritchie and Spencer’s (1994) ‘framework’ method of qualitative analysis
Williams 2008 Australia Co-exisisting diabetes and kidney disease Johnson’s (2002) model of medication adherence in hypertensive patients Convenience Sampling In-depth interviews and focus groups Content analysis according to Johnson’s (2002) model of medication adherence in hypertensive patients
Wylde 2011 UK Chronic Pain (post joint replacement) None Reported Convenience Sampling of those who agreed to participate from another survey Think aloud interviews with existing scale Thematic Analysis
Wyrwich 2006 USA Asthma, COPD or heart disease A model of HRQoL appraisal developed by Rapkin and Schwartz [16] Theoretical Sampling Semi-Structured Face-to-Face Cognitive Interviews Content Analysis
Yang 2009 Australia Complex Medical conditions - all patients had 2+ comorbidities None Reported Clinician referral of patients with 2+ comorbidities 2 weeks after recent hospital discharge Telephone interviews Constant Comparative/Grounded Theory
Zanchetta 2007 Canada Prostate cancer This enquiry was guided by the philosophy that education is a way to achieve a critical consciousness (Freire, 1973, 1999). Purposive Sampling Semi-Structured Interviews, participants’ personal journals, personal documents, genograms and ecomaps, and interviewer’s observational notes Content Analysis
Zickmund 2012 USA Hepatitis C and Opioid Addiction None Reported Purposive Sampling of patients from a clinical trial Semi-structured telephone interview Crabtree and Miller “Editing” Approach