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Table 5 Odds ratios for suicide in patients with a personality disorder (PD) with and without a co-morbid alcohol misuse disorder

From: Suicide risk in primary care patients diagnosed with a personality disorder: a nested case control study

Exposure categories Suicide cases Living controls   
n % n % Odds ratioa (95 % CI)
No mental illness or alcohol misuse 884 37.0 33,613 71.7 1.00 (Ref.)
Mental illness (not PD or alcohol) 1234 51.8 12,494 26.6 4.15 (3.79–4.56)
Personality disorder (PD) only 80 3.4 208 0.4 16.52 (12.59–21.68)
Alcohol misuse only 156 6.5 552 1.2 12.18 (10.03–14.80)
PD + alcohol misuse 30 1.3 28 0.06 45.40 (26.84–76.78)
Total 2384 100 46,899 100   
  1. aOdds ratio estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusted inherently for age and gender in the matched design