Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of primary care and sociodemographic factors in 5 integrated public housing estates in Singapore from 2009 to 2014 (N = 1996)

From: Primary care characteristics and their association with health screening in a low-socioeconomic status public rental-flat population in Singapore- a mixed methods study

  Owner-occupied blocks (higher-SES), N (%) Rental flat blocks (low-SES), N (%) OR (95 % CI) p-value
(N = 1060) (N = 936)
Site     
 Middle-aged housing estate 75.2 (797/1060) 69.3 (649/936) 1.00 0.004
 Mature housing estate 24.8 (263/1060) 30.7 (287/936) 1.34 (1.10–1.63)
Primary care characteristics     
On subsidized primary care (CHAS scheme)     
 Not on CHAS scheme 79.5 (843/1060) 47.5 (445/936) 1.00 <0.001
 On CHAS scheme 20.5 (217/1060) 52.5 (491/936) 4.29 (3.52–5.22)
In proximity to primary care     
 Not in proximity to primary care 38.5 (408/1060) 5.3 (50/936) 1.00 <0.001
 In proximity to primary care 61.5 (652/1060) 94.7 (886/936) 11.01 (8.13–15.13)
Regular primary care     
 Not on regular primary care followup 18.1 (192/1060) 47.8 (447/936) 1.00 <0.001
 On regular primary care followup 81.9 (868/1060) 52.2 (489/936) 0.24 (0.20–0.30)
Demographic characteristics     
Age     
  < 60 years 47.3 (501/1060) 49.5 (463/936) 1.00 0.346
  ≥ 60 years 52.7 (559/1060) 50.5 (473/936) 0.92 (0.77–1.09)
Ethnicity     
 Non-Chinese 23.8 (252/1060) 47.0 (440/936) 1.00 <0.001
 Chinese 76.2 (808/1060) 53.0 (496/936) 0.35 (0.29–0.43)
Marital status     
 Not married 29.8 (316/1060) 53.0 (496/936) 1.00 <0.001
 Married 70.2 (744/1060) 47.0 (440/936) 0.38 (0.31–0.45)
Gender     
 Female 59.5 (631/1060) 55.9 (523/936) 1.00 0.102
 Male 40.5 (429/1060) 44.1 (413/936) 1.16 (0.97–1.39)
Socioeconomic characteristics     
Occupation     
 Unemployed 58.7 (622/1060) 62.4 (584/936) 1.00 0.099
 Employed 41.3 (438/1060) 37.6 (352/936) 0.86 (0.72–1.03)
Financial aid     
 Not on financial aid 93.0 (986/1060) 81.6 (764/936) 1.00 <0.001
 On financial aid 7.0 (74/1060) 18.4 (172/936) 3.00 (2.25–4.00)
Monthly household income     
  ≤ $500 13.2 (140/1060) 31.9 (299/936) 1.00  
  ≥ $500, <$1000 11.5 (122/1060) 63.7 (596/936) 2.29 (1.73–3.03) <0.001
  ≥ $1000 75.3 (798/1060) 4.4 (41/936) 0.02 (0..02–0.04)
Education     
 Primary and below 37.7 (400/1060) 74.8 (700/936) 1.00 <0.001
 Secondary 34.6 (367/1060) 22.9 (214/936) 0.33 (0.27–0.41)
 Tertiary 27.6 (293/1060) 2.4 (22/936) 0.04 (0.03–0.07)  
Medical characteristics     
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI)     
 CCMI = 0 80.3 (851/1060) 68.1 (637/936) 1.00 <0.001
 CCMI > 0 19.7 (209/1060) 31.9 (299/936) 1.91 (1.56–2.35)
Chronic pain (pain ≥ 3 months)     
 No chronic pain 85.7 (908/1060) 85.8 (803/936) 1.00 0.949
 Chronic pain 14.3 (152/1060) 14.2 (133/936) 0.99 (0.77–1.27)
Hypertension     
 No hypertension 60.0 (636/1060) 61.4 (575/936) 1.00 0.521
 Has hypertension 40.0 (424/1060) 38.6 (361/936) 0.94 (0.79–1.13)
Diabetes     
 No diabetes 85.8 (909/1060) 79.5 (744/936) 1.00 <0.001
 Has diabetes 14.2 (151/1060) 20.5 (192/936) 1.55 (1.23–1.96)
Hyperlipidemia     
 No hyperlipidemia 62.8 (666/1060) 68.5 (641/936) 1.00 0.008
 Has hyperlipidemia 37.2 (394/1060) 31.5 (295/936) 0.78 (0.65–0.94)
Overweight     
 Not overweight 56.4 (594/1054) 54.7 (509/930) 1.00 0.469
 Overweight 43.6 (460/1054) 45.3 (421/930) 1.07 (0.89–1.28)