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Table 4 Linear regression models with self-efficacy for diabetes management as the outcome variable

From: Impact of communicative and critical health literacy on understanding of diabetes care and self-efficacy in diabetes management: a cross-sectional study of primary care in Japan

  HL
  Functional HL Communicative HL Critical HL
  β p β p β p
Model 1 0.004 0.948 0.365 < 0.001 0.369 < 0.001
Model 2 0.015 0.833 0.312 < 0.001 0.300 < 0.001
Model 3 0.010 0.891 0.292 < 0.001 0.298 < 0.001
  1. Model 1: unadjusted.
  2. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, education, economic status, internet use, social support, time since the diagnosis of diabetes, number of oral glucose-lowering drugs, insulin use, and diabetic complications.
  3. Model 3: model 2 plus the clarity of the physician’s explanation.
  4. HL: health literacy.