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Table 2 The effects of the lifestyle intervention compared with the control condition at one year follow-up.

From: Effect of lifestyle intervention for people with diabetes or prediabetes in real-world primary care: propensity score analysis

Outcome variables Means in
Intervention
group (SD)
Means in
Control
group (SD)
n Matched
Intervention†
Adjusted effect of
Intervention
(95% CI)‡
Adjusted
P-value
BMI (kg/m2)    152   
Baseline 30.36 (4.93) 29.54 (5.08)    
One year 30.33 (5.13) 29.63 (5.13)   0.04 (-0.87 to 0.94) 0.94
Exercise level (1-4)*    139   
Baseline 2.48 (0.60) 2.48 (0.71)    
One year 2.39 (0.73) 2.36 (0.71)   -0.01 (-0.18 to 0.17) 0.89
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)    184   
Baseline 7.21 (1.36) 7.28 (2.05)    
One year 6.98 (1.20) 7.18 (1.50)   -0.17 (-0.38 to 0.04) 0.08
HbA1c (%)    153   
Baseline 6.73 (0.92) 6.66 (0.97)    
One year 6.61 (0.75) 6.70 (0.87)   -0.12 (-0.30 to 0.06) 0.07
Blood pressure      
Systolic (mmHg)    176   
Baseline 138.98 (16.64) 143.68 (17.41)    
One year 138.59 (16.11) 142.90 (16.82)   -1.49 (-4.19 to 1.21) 0.25
Diastolic (mmHg)    175   
Baseline 79.88 (8.31) 79.39 (8.79)    
One year 79.35 (7.82) 79.17 (8.64)   -0.45 (-1.79 to 0.90) 0.48
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)    169   
Baseline 4.54 (0.94) 4.56 (1.00)    
One year 4.44 (1.00) 4.52 (0.98)   -0.12 (-0.26 to 0.22) 0.83
LDL (mmol/l)    169   
Baseline 2.80 (0.76) 2.85 (1.04)    
One year 2.67 (0.84) 2.73 (0.83)   0.01 (-0.19 to 0.21) 0.91
HDL (mmol/l)    169   
Baseline 1.16 (0.29) 1.16 (0.28)    
One year 1.18 (0.30) 1.17 (0.31)   0.03 (-0.05 to 0.07) 0.68
Triglycerides (mmol/l)    169   
Baseline 1.73 (0.98) 1.63 (0.95)    
One year 1.79 (1.01) 1.69 (1.19)   0.03 (-0.21 to 0.26) 0.76
  1. † Number of patients from the intervention group matched with patients in the control group.
  2. ‡ The adjusted effect of the intervention after the matching procedure.
  3. * Exercise level: 1 = sedentary lifestyle; 2 = activities of daily living; 3 = exercising at least half an hour for five or more days a week (NNGB); 4 = more active than NNGB.