Skip to main content

Table 5 Summary estimates of positive and negative likelihood ratio's, using a bivariate random effects model (102, 103, 105)

From: Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

  ≥ 102 CFU/ml ≥ 103 CFU/ml ≥ 105 CFU/ml
SYMPTOM +LR (95% CI) -LR (95% CI) +LR (95% CI) -LR (95% CI) +LR (95% CI) -LR (95% CI)
Dysuria 1.30 (1.20-1.41) 0.51 (0.43-0.61) 1.31 (1.18-1.45) 0.53 (0.43-0.64) 1.22 (1.11-1.34) 0.61 (0.50-0.74)
Frequency 1.10 (1.04-1.16) 0.60 (0.49-0.74) 1.12 (1.03-1.19) 0.59 (0.46-0.76) 1.09 (1.02-1.16) 0.58 (0.42-0.79)
Back pain 0.90 (0.71-1.14) 1.07 (0.90-1.28) 0.90 (0.71-1.14) 1.07 (0.90-1.28)     
Fever 1.28 (0.64-2.58) 0.98 (0.91-1.05) 1.39 (0.63-3.07) 0.96 (0.88-1.06) 0.90 (0.45-1.80) 1.01 (0.93-1.10
Flank pain 0.85 (0.67-1.08) 1.07 (0.98-1.17) 0.83 (0.56-1.24) 1.09 (0.92-1.29)     
Hematuria 1.72 (1.30-2.27) 0.88 (0.83-0.93) 1.68 (1.06-2.66) 0.89 (0.82-0.98)     
Lower abdominal pain 1.01 (0.89-1.15) 0.99 (0.87-1.13) 1.06 (0.88-1.29) 0.96 (0.83-1.10) 1.10 (0.87-1.38) 0.94 (0.82-1.08)
Nocturia 1.30 (1.08-1.56) 0.75 (0.60-0.94) 1.37 (1.13-1.65) 0.72 (0.56-0.93)     
Urgency 1.22 (1.11-1.34) 0.73 (0.62-0.86) 1.28 (1.11-1.47) 0.74 (0.64-0.85) 1.17 (1.04-1.31) 0.70 (0.57-0.86)
Vaginal discharge 0.65 (0.51-0.83) 1.10 (1.01-1.20)