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Table 4 Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random effects model (105)

From: Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

SYMPTOM No. of studies No. of Patient Sensitivity (95% CI) Variance Logit (sensitivity) Specificity (95% CI) Variance Logit (specificity)
Dysuria a 7 1584 0.78 (0.68-0.86) 0.42 0.36 (0.26-0.48) 0.37
Frequency 6 1333 0.90 (0.85-0.94) 0.22 0.17 (0.11-026) 0.38
Fever d 4 742 0.10 (0.04-0.23) 0.82 0.89 (0.75-0.95) 0.79
Lower abdominal pain f 4 784 0.40 (0.21-0.62) 0.74 0.64 (0.41-0.82) 0.83
Urgency g 4 1039 0.75 (0.69-0.80) 0.05 0.36 (0.27-0.46) 0.14
  1. a One study reported dysuria as painful voiding (Medina-Bombardo 2003)
  2. d One study reported fever as pyrexica (Lawson 1973
  3. f Different definitions were used: 'Suprapubic pain' (Hummer-Pradier 2005), Suprapubic pressure' (Baerheim), 'abdominal pain' (Fahey 2003)
  4. g One study reported urgency as urgency/frequency (Hummers-Pradier 2005)