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Table 2 Number of antibiotic prescriptions for high and low-empathy GPs

From: Profiles of GPs with high and low self-reported physician empathy—personal, professional, and antibiotic prescribing characteristics

  High-empathy GPs (N = 39) Low-empathy GPs  (N = 46) Group difference measures
Antibiotic category: Mean [95% CI] CV [95% CI] Mean [95% CI] CV [95% CI] VI [95% CI] Mean [95% CI] RanksumB
Penicillins:
 Extended spectrum JO1CA 108.77 [92.35;125.19] 0.48 [0.34;0.61] 136.87 [115.72;158.02] 0.50 [0.39;0.61] 0.79 [0.62;0.97] -28.10 [-54.61; -1.59] 0.0249*
 Beta-lactamase sensitive J01CE 111.92 [95.78;128.07] 0.45 [0.33;0.56] 158.24 [127.15;189.33] 0.63 [0.50;0.76] 0.71 [0.53;0.88] -46.32 [ -81.42:-11.22] 0.0364*
 Beta-lactamase resistant J01CF 32.95 [26.67; 39.22] 0.57 [0.36;0.78] 46.98 [38.75; 55.21] 0.56 [0.42;0.71] 0.70 [0.51;0.90] -14.03 [-24.52; -3.54] 0.0019**
 Combinations with beta lactamase inhibitors J01CR 20.56 [14.41; 26.72] 0.96 [0.74;1.17] 24.37 [19.02;29.72] 0.72 [0.58;0.87] 0.84 [0.51;1.17] -3.81 [-12.16; 4.55] 0.1503
 All penicillins: J01C 274.21 [237.76;310.65] 0.41 [0.30;0.52] 366.46 [310.21;422.71] 0.50 [0.39;0.61] 0.75 [0.59;0.91] -92.25 [-159.53; -24.97] 0.0047**
Non-penicillin antibiotics:
 Tetrayclines J01A 15.77 [11.81; 19.73] 0.83 [0.60;1.06] 14.30 [10.26;18.35] 0.92 [0.62;1.22] 1.10 [0.67;1.53] 1.46 [-4.28; 7.21] 0.4933
 Cephalosporins J01D 0.13 [ -0.01; 0.27] 3.66 [1.37;5.94] 0.13 [0.02;0.24] 3.07 [1.11;5.03] 0.98 [-1.71;3.68] -0.00 [-0.18; 0.17] 0.6553
 Sulfonamides J01E 42.64 [33.24; 52.04] 0.71 [0.57;0.86] 41.00 [31.67;50.33] 0.75 [0.59;0.91] 1.04 [0.68;1.40] 1.64 [-11.96; 15.24] 0.7843
 Macrolides J01F 63.26 [46.24; 80.27] 0.87 [0.57;1.16] 71.28 [51.55;91.02] 0.90 [0.68;1.13] 0.89 [0.53;1.25] -8.03 [-34.59;18.54] 0.524
 Quinalones J01M 18.18 [12.08; 24.28] 1.10 [0.80;1.40] 22.0 [15.17;29.00] 0.97 [0.77;1.18] 0.82 [0.43;1.22] -3.91 [-13.28; 5.46] 0.3021
 Other antibiotics J01X 13.87 [9.31;18.44] 1.07 [0.84;1.31] 13.74 [8.66;18.81] 1.15 [0.74;1.56] 1.01 [0.51;1.51] 0.13 [-6.71; 6.98] 0.846
 All other antibiotics 153.85 [120.77;186.93] 0.70 [0.50;0.90] 162.54 [126.53;198.55] 0.71 [0.57;0.86] 0.95 [0.64;1.25] -8.69 [-58.83;1.43] 0.88
Antifungals, J02 36.95 [29.48;44.42] 0.66 [0.52;0.80] 38.04 [29.94;46.15] 0.68 [0.49;0.87] 0.97 [0.68;1.26] -1.09 [-11.90; 9.71] 0.7871
Total all antibiotics: 427.97 [366.07;489.88] 0.46 [0.37;0.56] 528.78 [443.46;614.11] 0.52 [0.42;0.63] 0.81 [0.63;0.99] -100.81 [-207.84; 6.201] 0.0643
 Narrow spectrum (N) 264.59 [223.92, 305.26] 0.49 [0.38;0.60] 331.07 [273.35;388.78] 0.57 [0.44;0.69] 0.80 [0.61;0.99] -66.48 [-138.16; 5.21] 0.1078
 Broad spectrum (B) 163.38 [138.94, 187.82] 0.48 [0.37;0.56] 197.72 [167.08;228.36] 0.50 [0.41;0.64] 0.83 [0.64;1.01] -34.33 [-73.89; 5.23] 0.0751
  1. † : High-empathy GPs (10th decile). ‡ : Low-empathy GPs (1st decile). CV: Coefficient of variation = (SD/Mean); Variation index (VI) = %ile>90 group† mean (= 39)/ %ile<10 group ‡ mean (= 46). B: The differences between the groups have been tested: The Mann-Whitney (ranksum) test was applied. *: p <0.05, **: p <0.01 ***: p <0.001. Furthermore, 95% CIs for the mean group differences have been estimated. All reported confidence intervals are based on bootstrapping (1000 reps) of the observations in the high and low empathy groups respectively. N: Narrow spectrum antibiotic was defined via the following ATC-codes: J01CE, J01CF, J01DB, J01DF, JO1EA, J01EB, J01FA, J01FF, J01XA, J01XC, J01XD, J01XE, J01XX. B: Broad spectrum antibiotics included: J01AA, J01CA, J01CR, J01DC, J01DD, J01DH, J01EE, J01GB, J01MA, J01MXB