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Table 2 Patient, provider, and site characteristics of any virtual care or video-based care use at the VA Greater Los Angeles PC Clinics

From: Examining telehealth use among primary care patients, providers, and clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic

Adjusted %a [non-reference vs. reference (ref) difference in % any virtual care or video-based care (95% Confidence Interval) and p-value]
Study Covariates Any Virtual Care p-value Video-Based Care p-value
Age & Sex Interaction:
 18–44 & Female (ref) 40.6% (N/A) NA 20.2% (N/A) NA
 18–44 & Male 34.4% (−7.1, −5.2%) <.001 15.3% (−6.0, −3.8%) <.001
 45–54 & Female (ref) 38.7% (N/A) NA 17.2% (N/A) NA
 45–54 & Male 34.6% (−5.1, −3.2%) <.001 10.6% (−7.6, − 5.6%) <.001
 65–74 & Female (ref) 37.8% N/A NA 13.7% (N/A) NA
 65–74 & Male 34.9% (−4.5, −1.2%) <.001 8.5% (−7.0, −3.5%) <.001
 75+ & Female (ref) 36.1% (N/A) NA 7.2% (N/A) NA
 75+ & Male 35.4% (−3.1, 1.7%) .555 7.0% (−2.0, 1.7%) .854
Race/Ethnicity:
 Non-Hispanic White (ref) 35.3% (N/A) NA 11.1% (N/A) NA
 Non-Hispanic African American 36.3% (0.5, 1.4%) <.001 9.7% (−1.8, −1.0%) <.001
 Non-Hispanic All Other 34.7% (−1.3, 0.1%) .100 11.5% (−0.3, 1.1%) .300
 Hispanic 34.4% (−1.3, − 0.4%) <.001 10.2% (− 1.3, − 0.4%) <.001
 Unknown 34.6% (− 1.3, − 0.2%) .011 10.2% (− 1.4, − 0.3%) <.002
Marital Status:
 Not Married (ref) 35.0% (N/A)   9.6% (N/A)_ NA
 Married 35.9% (0.6, 1.3%) <.001 12.1% (2.1, 2.8%) <.001
Non-VA Health Insurance:
 No (ref) 34.8% (N/A) NA 10.0% (N/A) NA
 Yes 35.9% (0.7, 1.4%) <.001 11.2% (0.9, 1.6%) <.001
Health Risk Factors (Nosos)b:
 0.5 Nosos Value 35.1% (34.9, 35.3%) <.001 11.3% (11.1, 11.5%) <.001
 1.0 Nosos Value 35.2% (35.0, 35.4%) <.001 10.8% (10.6, 11.0%) <.001
 2.0 Nosos Value 35.4% (35.2, 35.6%) <.001 9.8% (9.5, 10.0%) <.001
PCClinician Type:
 MDs, PAs, NPs (ref) 34.0% (N/A) NA 15.3% (N/A) NA
 LVNs, Medical Assistant (MAs) 24.7% (−9.6, −8.9%) <.001 0.2% (−15.4, −14.8%) <.001
 Registered Nurse (RNs) 39.1% (4.8, 5.5%) <.001 2.2% (−13.4, − 12.8%) <.001
 SWs, Pharmacists, Dietitians 53.7% (19.1, 20.3%) <.001 5.4% (− 10.3, − 9.5%) <.001
 Mental Health Providers 41.3% (4.5, 10.0%) <.001 43.3% (23.6, 32.4%) <.001
Hospital-Based Clinic:
 No (e.g., community clinics) (ref) 37.7% (N/A) NA 9.5% (N/A) NA
 Yes 29.8% (−8.2, −7.5%) <.001 13.1% (3.2, 4.0%) <.001
  1. aIndividual-level interrupted time series analysis using segmented logistic regression on repeated monthly observations over 24-months (March 1, 2019 through March 1, 2021) adjusting for patient and provider level clustering; patient sociodemographic variables, health status; provider and site characteristics
  2. bThe association of the continuous Nosos score with telehealth (or video) use is expressed as the adjusted percentage of telehealth (or video) use obtained from a Nosos value of 2.0 (indicating comorbidities whose costs are likely to be two times as high as the national average, or “high-cost” users), and a Nosos value of 0.5 (indicating comorbidities whose costs are likely to be only half the national average, or “low-cost” users)