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Table 2 Community-Based Opioid Dispensing Before and After Elective Foot and Ankle Surgery

From: Opioid prescribing practices prior to elective foot and ankle surgery: a population-based evaluation using health administrative data from a tertiary hospital in Canada

Preoperative Community-Based Opioid Use Preoperative Classification P-value
Opioid Naive
(n = 55)
Intermittent Opioid Users
(n = 26)
Long-term Opioid Users
(n = 19)
Mean MED (range) 0 10.9 (0.2, 110.3) 115.6 (3.3, 608.0)  < 0.001
Mean Days of Opioid Use in past 180 days, (range) 0 28.5 (4, 101) 147.3 (100, 183)  < 0.001
Opioid Prescriber, n (%)
 Family Physician 0 17 (65.4) 18 (94.7) 0.06
 Orthopedic Surgeon 0 4 (15.3) 0 (0.0)
 Not Indicated 0 5 (19.2) 1 (5.3)
Postoperative Community-Based Opioid Use Postoperative Classification P-value
No Opioid Use Post Discharge
(n = 13)
Intermittent Opioid Users (n = 72) Long-term Opioid Users
(n = 15)
Mean MED (range) 0 6.1 (0.75, 84) 153.5 (3.9, 448)  < 0.001
Mean Days of Opioid Use 180 days post-surgery (range) 0 13.7 (2, 90) 49.7 (30, 100)  < 0.001
Opioid Prescriber, n (%)
 Family Physician 0 44 (61.1) 13 (86.7) 0.065
 Orthopedic Surgeon 0 20 (27.8) 0 (0.0)
 Not indicated 0 8 (11.1) 2 (13.3)
  1. T-test or Wilcoxon ranks sum test was used for Age and BMI (continuous), and Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical covariate as appropriate