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Table 3 Characteristics and mean medical consultations in previous year for immigrants, (n = 13,912)

From: Utilization of healthcare by immigrants in Canada: a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey

  n (%) Number of consultations p-value
Mean (SD)
Primary exposure
 Time since immigration    < 0.001
   < 10 years 3340 (24.0) 2.97 (4.45)  
   ≥ 10 years 10,572 (76.0) 3.50 (4.54)  
Predisposing factors
 Sex    < 0.001
  Male 6836 (49.1) 2.99 (4.37)  
  Female 7077 (50.9) 3.75 (4.64)  
 Age    < 0.001
  18–39 years 4414 (31.7) 2.76 (4.29)  
  40–64 years 6401 (46.0) 3.39 (4.64)  
  65–79 years 2497 (17.9) 4.04 (4.38)  
   ≥ 80 years 600 (4.3) 4.92 (4.92  
 Region of residencea    < 0.001
  Western Canada 4545 (32.7) 3.70 (4.81)  
  Central Canada 9249 (66.5) 3.21 (4.37)  
  Atlantic Canada and Northern Territories 119 (0.9) 4.19 (4.73)  
 Marital status    < 0.001
  Single 2430 (17.5) 2.77 (4.36)  
  Widowed/divorced/separated 1881 (13.6) 4.02 (4.97)  
  Married or common-law 9542 (68.9) 3.41 (4.47)  
 Cultural/racial background    < 0.001
  White 4831 (35.1) 3.57 (4.60)  
  Non-white 8940 (64.9) 3.28 (4.49)  
 Sense of belonging to local community    0.029
  Very weak 994 (7.6) 3.60 (4.88)  
  Somewhat weak 3042 (23.2) 3.33 (4.79)  
  Somewhat strong 6329 (48.3) 3.18 (4.16)  
  Very strong 2746 (20.9) 3.31 (4.42)  
Enabling factors    
 Total household income    < 0.001
  No income or less than $20,000 1024 (7.4) 3.96 (5.63)  
  $20,000–$39,999 2322 (16.7) 3.63 (4.89)  
  $40,000–$59,999 2249 (16.2) 3.30 (4.33)  
  $60,000–$79,999 2128 (15.3) 3.30 (4.55)  
  $80,000 or more 6185 (44.5) 3.24 (4.22)  
 Education    < 0.001
  Less than secondary school 1305 (9.5) 4.04 (4.72)  
  Secondary school 2702 (19.8) 3.50 (4.96)  
  Post-secondary 9660 (70.7) 3.24 (4.36)  
 Knowledge of official languages    < 0.001
  Not proficient in official languages 563 (4.0) 4.15 (4.11)  
  Proficient in official languages 13,342 (96.0) 3.34 (4.54)  
 Insurance for prescription medications    0.002
  No insurance 3880 (27.8) 3.20 (4.52)  
  Insurance 9938 (72.2) 3.47 (4.55)  
 Has a regular health care provider    < 0.001
  No regular health care provider 2221 (16.0) 1.51 (3.38)  
  Has a regular health care provider 11,659 (84.0) 3.73 (4.63)  
Need factors    
 Perceived health    < 0.001
  Poor 440 (3.2) 9.24 (8.21)  
  Fair 1165 (8.4) 5.74 (6.06)  
  Good 4412 (31.8) 3.58 (4.40)  
  Very good 4479 (32.3) 2.77 (3.56)  
  Excellent 3368 (24.3) 2.30 (3.54)  
 Number of medical conditions    < 0.001
  Zero 4972 (35.7) 2.02 (3.27)  
  One 3314 (23.8) 2.93 (3.81)  
  Two 1939 (13.9) 3.61 (4.58)  
  Three or more 3687 (26.5) 5.48 (5.63)  
  1. aWestern Canada includes British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Central Canada includes Ontario and Quebec, Atlantic and North includes remaining provinces and territories