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Table 5 Study on patients’ profile in the presence or absence of therapeutic inertia (TI) *

From: Therapeutic inertia in proteinuria management among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in primary care settings: prevalence and associated risk factors

Patients characteristics Without TI (n = 230) With TI (n = 155) P-value
Sex    0.604
 Male 116 74  
 Female 114 81  
Age (years) 69.6 ± 11.8 70.6 ± 13.7 0.471
BMI (kg/m2) 25.37 ± 4.85 25.33 ± 4.53 0.603
Smoking    0.543
 Never smoke 168 106  
 Ex-smoker 39 33  
 Smoker smoke 23 16  
Duration of DM (years) 9.46 ± 7.5 10.2 ± 8.8 0.366
Haemoglobin A1c (%) 6.88 ± 1.22 6.85 ± 1.11 0.811
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 70.1 ± 24.4 71.0 ± 24.4 0.702
Urine ACR level (mg/mmol) 39.1 ± 72.4 31.0 ± 98.8 0.356
 2.5/3.5–30 160 (69.6%) 132 (85.2%) 0.001
 30–300 66 (28.7%) 20 (12.9%)  
  > 300 4 (1.7%) 3 (1.9%)  
Blood pressure (mmhg)
 Systolic 134.6 ± 18.6 128.0 ± 13.6 0.000
 Diastolic 72.5 ± 12.2 69.9 ± 10.8 0.036
Treatment with ACEI/ARB
 Nil 64 (28.8%) 64 (41.3%) 0.000
 On submaximal dose of ACEI/ARB 46 (20.0%) 88 (56.8%)  
 On maximal dose of ACEI/ARB 120 (52.2%) 3 (1.9%)  
Co-morbidities:
 HT 220 (95.7%) 140 (90.3%) 0.037
CVD
 IHD 11 (4.8%) 9 (5.8%) 0.657
 CVA 30 (13.1%) 15 (9.7%) 0.371
 PVD 0 (0%) 1 (0.6%) 0.403
Other diabetic complications
 Diabetic retinopathy 98(42.6%) 65 (41.9%) 0.90
 Diabetic neuropathy 36 (15.7%) 21 (13.5%) 0.569
Lipid Profile
 TG (mmol/L) 1.50 ± 1.05 1.55 ± 1.18 0.654
 TC (mmol/L) 4.31 ± 0.9 4.23 ± 0.93 0.429
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.34 ± 0.39 1.29 ± 0.37 0.203
 LDL (mmol/L) 2.29 ± 0.71 2.25±0.80 0.553
  1. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation or No. (%) of cases
  2. Abbreviations: BMI  Body mass index, DM Diabetes mellitus, ACR Albumin over creatinine ratio, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACEI  Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker, HT Hypertension, CVD Cardiovascular disease, IHD Ischaemic heart disease, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, PVD Peripheral vascular disease, TG Triglyceride, TC  Total cholesterol, HDL  High-density lipoprotein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein