Skip to main content

Table 3 Target Patient Population: Change in Outcomes

From: Increasing system-wide implementation of opioid prescribing guidelines in primary care: findings from a non-randomized stepped-wedge quality improvement project

Characteristics Change in Intervention clinics
(N = 1255 at exit)
Change in Comparison clinics
(N = 1632 at exit)
Change in Intervention versus Comparison clinics
Change from baseline p value Cohen’s d Change from baseline p value Cohen’s d Difference p value Cohen’s d
Completed treatment agreement (past 12 months), % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
32.0 (6.7)
(18.8, 45.2)
< 0.001 2.1 29.2 (6.7)
(16.1, 42.4)
< 0.001 1.5 2.8 (9.6)
(−16.1, 21.6)
0.816 0.1
Completed urine drug testing (past 12 months), % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
33.4 (7.0)
(19.8, 47.1)
< 0.001 2.6 25.7 (5.3)
(15.3, 36.1)
< 0.001 1.7 7.7 (8.7)
(−9.3, 24.7)
0.277 0.4
Completed depression screening (past 12 months), % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
49.2 (6.1)
(37.2, 61.1)
< 0.001 3.4 55.4 (6.9)
(41.8, 69.0)
< 0.001 3.3 6.2 (9.6)
(−25.1, 12.6)
0.526 0.3
Completed opioid misuse risk assessment, % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
5.4 (3.0)
(−0.5, 11.3)
0.070 0.9 10.1 (5.8)
(−1.4, 21.5)
0.050 0.7 −4.7 (7.4)
(−19.2, 9.9)
0.417 0.3
Documented PDMP* Check (past 12 months), % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
50.7 (6.3)
(38.3, 63.1)
< 0.001 3.8 39.9 (7.8)
(24.6, 55.2)
< 0.001 2.0 10.8 (10.8)
(−10.4, 32.0)
0.301 0.4
Co-prescribed benzodiazepines in at least 1 out of 3 past months, % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
−1.2 (1.6)
(−4.3, 1.9)
0.461 0.3 −5.4 (1.8)
(−9.0, − 1.8)
0.006 0.7 4.3 (2.7)
(−0.9, 9.5)
0.143 0.7
Percentage of the adult clinic population, % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
−0.3 (0.2)
(− 0.6, 0.0)
0.042 0.4 −0.4 (0.1)
(− 0.6, − 0.1)
0.056 0.5 0.0 (0.2)
(− 0.3, 0.4)
0.547 0.1
MED (past 90 days), mg/day, mean (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
−11.6 (2.4)
(− 16.4, − 6.9)
< 0.001 0.4 −9.9 (3.0)
(− 15.8, − 4.1)
0.0001 0.6 −1.7 (4.0)
(− 9.6, 6.2)
0.937 0.2
MED ≥ 90 mg/day (past 90 days), % (SE),
95% CI (LB,UB)
−3.5 (1.1)
(− 5.8, − 1.3)
0.002 0.4 − 1.6 (0.7)
(− 3.0, − 0.1)
0.004 0.2 −2.0 (1.3)
(− 4.5, 0.6)
0.270 0.7
  1. Population of adult patients with opioid-treated chronic non-cancer pain in the 9 intervention and 17 comparison primary care clinics; characteristics at exit (December 2017) and their patient-weighted change from baseline
  2. CI (LB,UB) Confidence Interval (Lower Bound, Upper Bound), MED Morphine-equivalent Dose, PDMP Prescription Drug Monitoring Program, SE standard error
  3. * Exit data for the PDMP outcome was collected in March 2017; starting in April 2017, the PDMP check documentation rose to approximately 100% across all clinics due to the changes in documentation requirements
  4. p value was determined using the single sample mean test comparing clinic-level changes in outcomes from baseline to exit
  5. p value was determined using the two-sample means test comparing clinic-level changes in outcomes from baseline to exit for intervention versus comparison clinic groups