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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted means, and β coefficients of EQ5D UI across various predictors

From: How does multimorbidity affect middle-aged adults? A cross-sectional survey in the Singapore primary healthcare setting

Predictor Variables Un adjusted mean (SD) Adjusted mean (SD) β 95% C.I p-value
No. of chronic condition(s)
 1 or 2 0.871 (0.198) 0.837 (0.034) REFERENCE
 ≥ 3 0.804 (0.251) 0.785 (0.032) −0.064 (−0.125, − 0.003) 0.04*
Age (years)
 < 50 0.754 (0.304) 0.737 (0.042) −0.137 (− 0.246, − 0.029) 0.01*
 50–54 0.846 (0.217) 0.837 (0.042) −0.01 (− 0.095, 0.075) 0.82
 55–59 0.845 (0.222) 0.828 (0.036) −0.021 (− 0.091, 0.050) 0.57
 60–64 0.871 (0.187) 0.845 (0.036) REFERENCE
Sex
 Male 0.843 (0.224) 0.801 (0.035) REFERENCE
 Female 0.843 (0.224) 0.82 (0.032) 0.023 (−0.040, 0.087) 0.48
Ethnicity
 Chinese 0.854 (0.212) 0.845 (0.034) REFERENCE
 Non-Chinese 0.795 (0.265) 0.777 (0.037) −0.084 (−0.174, 0.005) 0.06
Main spoken language
 English 0.86 (0.249) 0.837 (0.036) REFERENCE
 Mandarin 0.835 (0.214) 0.778 (0.034) −0.073 (−0.148, 0.001) 0.05
 Malay/Tamil/ Others 0.838 (0.206) 0.817 (0.040) −0.025 (− 0.116, 0.066) 0.59
Marital status
 Married 0.856 (0.206) 0.845 (0.038) REFERENCE
 Othersa 0.797 (0.275) 0.777 (0.034) −0.084 (− 0.171, 0.003) 0.06
Education
 Primary/ No formal 0.835 (0.218) 0.807 (0.038) REFERENCE
 Secondary 0.843 (0.239) 0.814 (0.036) 0.009 (−0.066, 0.083) 0.82
 Post-secondary 0.851 (0.205) 0.811 (0.035) 0.005 (−0.087, 0.097) 0.91
Employment
 Employed 0.847 (0.217) 0.83 (0.032) REFERENCE
 Unemployed/ Retired 0.832 (0.239) 0.792 (0.036) −0.047 (−0.116, 0.022) 0.18
Monthly Household Income
 < $2000 0.828 (0.284) 0.807 (0.037) REFERENCE
 $2000–$3999 0.861 (0.193) 0.831 (0.038) 0.03 (−0.059, 0.119) 0.51
 $4000–$5999 0.808 (0.242) 0.791 (0.041) −0.02 (− 0.120, 0.079) 0.69
 ≥ $6000 0.866 (0.186) 0.812 (0.045) 0.006 (−0.100, 0.113) 0.91
 Not disclosed 0.848 (0.202) 0.811 (0.038) 0.005 (−0.090, 0.100) 0.92
Dwelling
 Institution/ HDB 1–3 room 0.841 (0.247) 0.824 (0.035) REFERENCE
 HDB 4 room 0.822 (0.222) 0.791 (0.036) −0.041 (−0.122, 0.040) 0.32
 Other dwellingsb 0.87 (0.207) 0.817 (0.038) −0.009 (− 0.096, 0.079) 0.85
Home Ownership
 Owner-occupied 0.855 (0.211) 0.842 (0.029) REFERENCE
 Not owner-occupied 0.743 (0.296) 0.78 (0.045) −0.077 (−0.192, 0.037) 0.19
Living arrangement
 Living alone 0.919 (0.129) 0.874 (0.054) REFERENCE
 Living with others 0.837 (0.228) 0.751 (0.024) −0.151 (−0.274, − 0.028) 0.02*
  1. aOther marital status: not married, single, widowed, divorced, and separated
  2. b Other dwellings: HDB 5-room, HDB executive, Housing and Urban Development Company apartment, HDB executive condominium, private condominium, and landed properties
  3. HDB Housing and Development Board
  4. *p-value < 0.05