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Table 2 Illness perceptions and personal resources of participating multimorbid patients

From: Identifying high-need patients with multimorbidity from their illness perceptions and personal resources to manage their health and care: a longitudinal study

Illness perceptionsNMean (SD)N%
Consequences (0–10)5845.39 (2.62)  
Consequences dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  24542.0
Timeline (0–10)5829.03 (1.85)  
Timeline dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  53992.6
Personal control (0–10)5845.92 (2.41)  
Personal control dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  28849.3
Treatment controla (0–10)4606.72 (2.18)  
Treatment control dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  29063.0
Identity (0–10)5855.38 (2.64)  
Identity dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  25042.7
Concern (0–10)5714.79 (2.78)  
Concern dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  18532.4
Understanding (0–10)5757.52 (2.33)  
Understanding dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  43675.8
Emotional response (0–10)5774.12 (2.91)  
Emotional response dichotomous (score ≥ 7)  15627.0
Personal resources
Social resources
Lives with partner597 44173.9
There are plenty of people I can lean on when I have troubles580   
 No  386.6
 More or less  14424.8
 Yes  39868.6
Education level584  
 Low (primary school or low/preparatory vocational training)  20535.1
 Medium (intermediate or advanced general education or intermediate vocational training)  24642.1
 High (applied university, university)  13322.8
Financial resources
How would you describe your current situation?570   
 I have to make debts  132.3
 I need to use my/our savings  7212.6
 I get by  19133.5
 I save some money  24743.2
 I save a lot of money  478.2
Health literacy
 Healthcare provider support (HPS) (1–4)5833.04 (0.41)  
 HPS dichotomous (score ≥ 3)  45077.2
 Having sufficient information (HSI) (1–4)5762.95 (0.34)  
 HSI dichotomous (score ≥ 3)  41972.7
 Actively managing health (AMH) (1–4)5702.81 (0.39)  
 AMH dichotomous (score ≥ 3)  27548.2
 Social support (SS) (1–4)5772.92 (0.43)  
 SS dichotomous (score ≥ 3)  36062.4
 Critical appraisal (CA) (1–4)5702.60 (0.47)  
 CA dichotomous (score ≥ 3)  18231.9
 Active engagement with healthcare providers (AE) (1–5)5593.88 (0.64)  
 AE dichotomous (score ≥ 4)  32858.7
 Navigating the healthcare system (NHS) (1–5)5633.74 (0.65)  
 NHS dichotomous (score ≥ 4)  24443.3
 Ability to find good health information (FHI) (1–5)5573.72 (0.67)  
 FHI dichotomous (score ≥ 4)  25946.5
 Reading and understanding health information (UHI) (1–5)5603.83 (0.61)  
 UHI dichotomous (score ≥ 4)  28751.3
Mastery581   
Mastery scale score (7–35) 23.40 (5.11)  
 Mastery scale score > 21  37965.2
Mental health584   
HADS depression scale score (0–21) 4.48 (3.76)  
 High-risk major depression (scale score ≥ 8)  11219.2
  1. a only filled in if applicable (perceived by participants as in case of medical treatment); n = 94 chose the n.a.-option