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Table 4 Characteristics of articles included in the review

From: Application of normalisation process theory in understanding implementation processes in primary care settings in the UK: a systematic review

Author and Date Location Design Method Setting Sample Topic Implementation Stage
Band et al. [31] (2017) England Mixed Methods Semi-structured interviews; focus groups; synthesis of qualitative literature; quantitative systematic review Primary care Patients (n = 50);
Patient interviewees (n = 16);
HCP interviewees (n = 16)
Blood pressure Development
Bayliss et al. [32] (2016) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care Patients (n = 11); GP (n = 8) ME/CFS Evaluation
Blickem et al. [33] (2014) England Qualitative Ethnographic Primary care Patients (n = 20); Telephone Support Workers (n = 3) Chronic kidney disease Trial
Bouamrane and Mair [34]. (2013) Scotland Qualitative Semi-structured interviews and focus groups Primary care GP (n = 25) Electronic referral system Evaluation
Bouamrane and Mair [35]. (2014) Scotland Qualitative Semi-structured interviews and focus groups Primary care GP (n = 25) Electronic referral system Evaluation
Browne et al. [36] (2014) Scotland Qualitative Semi-structured interviews and focus groups Primary care Secondary care Patients (n = 30); Carers (n = 20); Community Care Professionals (n = 39); Heart Failure Specialists (n = 22); Palliative Care Professionals (n = 4) Chronic heart failure Development
Buckingham et al. [37] (2015) Scotland Qualitative Semi-structured interviews and group interviews Primary care
Community health
Patients (n = 32); Carers (n = 3); HCP (n = 28) COPD Trial
Carter et al. [38] (2016) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews and focus groups Primary care GP (n = 13); PN (n = 9); Practice Managers (n = 5); Practice Administrators (n = 23) Patient feedback Evaluation
Coupe et al. [39] (2014) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care Case managers (n = 6); Supervisors (n = 5); GP (n = 15) Collaborative care: Depression Evaluation
De Brún et al. [59] (2015) Europe (Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, Netherlands, Scotland) Documentary review Mapping Primary care   Cross-cultural communication Development
Farr et al. [40] (2018) England Mixed-methods Semi-structured interviews; patient survey; e-consultation data Primary care Primary care practice stakeholders [GP (n = 10); Nurse Practitioner (n = 1); Practice Managers(n = 6); Practice Administrators (n = 6)]; Patients (n = 75) e-consultation Evaluation
Grant et al. [41] (2017) England Qualitative In-depth interview Primary care GP (n = 17); Practice Managers/Administrators (n = 9); Practice Pharmacists (n = 3) Prescribing Evaluation
Hoskins et al. [42] (2016) Scotland Mixed-methods Patient data, semi-structured interviews (practice nurses and patients) Primary care PN (n = 10); patients (n = 14) Asthma management Trial
Kennedy et al. [43] (2014) England Mixed-methods Semi-structured interviews and survey data Primary care Patients (n = 24) and Stakeholders from 31 practices including GP; Nurses,
Practice manager and Administrators
Long-term conditions Evaluation
Kennedy et al. [44] (2014) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care PN (n = 11); Assistant Practitioners (n = 1) Long-term conditions Evaluation
Knowles et al. [45] (2013) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care Psychological Well-being Practitioners (n = 6); PN (n = 17) Collaborative care: Mental health co-morbidity Evaluation
Ling et al. [46] (2012) England Qualitative Case-study; semi-structured interviews; observations; semi-structured questionnaire, and documentary analysis Primary care Secondary care
Community health
Staff stakeholders (n = 213) Integrated care Evaluation
Lionis et al. [59] (2016) Europe (Austria, England, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Netherlands) Qualitative Stakeholder (JT PLA Style Focus Group) Primary care Total: n = 304 governmental and non-governmental agencies
England n = 9.
Total: Stakeholders (n = 78): England: Migrant Community stakeholders (n = 7); GP (n = 1), Interpreter (n = 1), Policy Maker (n = 1)
Guidelines and training initiatives (G/TIs) are available to support communication in cross-cultural consultations Development
Martindale et al. [47] (2017) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care GP (n = 7); PN (n = 5); Community Pharmacist (n = 5); Practice Pharmacist (n = 4); Practice Administrator (n = 2); HCA (n = 1); Patients (n = 5) Prevention of acute kidney injury Evaluation
Morden et al. [48] (2015) England Qualitative Ethnographic Primary care GP (n = 9);
PN (n = 4)
Osteoarthritis Evaluation
Morris et al. [49] (2016) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care GP (n = 12); PN (n = 8); Pharmacists (n = 12); Patients (n = 10) Acute kidney injury Evaluation
O’Donnell and Kaner [50]. (2017) England Qualitative In-depth, semi-structured interviews Primary care GP (n = 14) Brief alcohol interventions Evaluation
Ong et al. [51] (2014) England Qualitative Ethnographic Primary care GP (n = 10); PN (n = 5) Osteoarthritis Evaluation
Porter et al. [52] (2016) Wales Qualitative Semi-structured interviews and focus groups Primary care GP (n = 31); PN (n = 2); Practice Manager (n = 10) Emergency admission prediction Evaluation
Reeve et al. [53] (2016) England Qualitative Ethnographic Primary care HCP; Commissioners, and Patients. (n = unspecified) Mental health Evaluation
Reeve et al. [54] (2018) England Quantitative Survey Primary care Nurse Prescriber (n = 234); GP (n = 97); Pharmacist (n = 88) Polypharmacy prescribing Development
Ricketts et al. [58] (2016) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care GP (n = 9); PN (n = 13); Reception Staff (n = 7). Sexual health Evaluation
Rostami et al. [55] (2018) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Primary care Secondary care Primary Care Pharmacists (n = 2); Hospital Pharmacists (n = 9); Hospital Nurse (n = 3); Clinical Auditor (n = 1) Prescribing safety Evaluation
Stevenson [56]. (2015) England Qualitative Semi-structured interviews and focus groups Primary care Patients (n = 50); Practice Staff (n = 7); Stakeholders (n = 11) CPRD implementation Evaluation
Teunissen et al. [61] (2017) Europe (Austria, England, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Netherlands) Qualitative Ethnography Primary care 66 Stakeholders [GP (n = 14); PN (n = 8); Policy Makers (n = 12); Administrators (n = 6); Trainers (n = 4); Interpreters (n = 4); Migrants/Migrant Representatives (n = 18)] Cross-cultural communication Evaluation
Webster et al. [57] (2016) England Qualitative Semi-structured interview Primary care Patients (n = 4); GP (n = 5); PN (n = 3); HCA (n = 1); mental health gateway worker (n = 1) Collaborative care Evaluation
  1. GP General Practitioner
  2. HCA Health Care Assistant
  3. HCP Health Care Professional
  4. PN Practice Nurse