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Table 3 Multivariable Logistic Regression Models between Factors in the WHO’s Domains and Medication Adherence as Measured by the Four-Item Morisky-Green-Levine Self-Reported Questionnaire, n = 299

From: Adherence to treatment and related factors among patients with chronic conditions in primary care: a cross-sectional study

  Multivariate Logistic Regression
Factors Adjusted OR 95% CI p-value
Social and Economic
Age (per 10-year increment) 1.31 (1.01–1.70) 0.039
Immigration Status
  Born in Spain Ref. Ref.  
  Immigrated to Spain 0.64 (0.25 to 1.65) 0.352
Living Status
  Living alone Ref. Ref.  
  Living with someone 1.81 (0.89 to 3.68) 0.099
Healthcare Team and System-Related
Number of Pharmacies Used for Refills 0.65 (0.47 to 0.90) 0.008
Treatment Information Received
  Not receiving complete information Ref. Ref.  
  Receiving complete information 3.89 (2.09 to 7.21) < 0.001
Condition-Related Factors
Number of Chronic Conditions 1.31 (0.99 to 1.73) 0.061
Adjusted Morbidity Group
  AMG1 Ref. Ref.  
  AMG2 0.68 (0.28 to 1.69) 0.410
  AMG3 0.84 (0.28 to 2.79) 0.836
Therapy-Related
Interfering with Activities of Daily Living
  Interfering Ref. Ref.  
  Not-interfering 1.52 (0.53 to 4.34) 0.432
Patient-Related
Medication Dosing Reminders
  Not using any reminder Ref. Ref.  
  Use of alarms/phones/pillboxes 1.56 (0.69 to 3.52) 0.281
  Association of medication with daily routines 1.55 (0.74 to 3.28) 0.244
Patient’s Knowledge about Medication Regimen
  Not having an adequate knowledge Ref. Ref.  
  Having an adequate knowledge 4.17 (2.23 to 7.80) < 0.001
Self-Perceived Quality of Life
  Not having good quality of life Ref. Ref.  
  Having good quality of life 2.17 (1.18 to 4.02) 0.013
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; Ref., reference
  2. Bold values are statistically significant at p-values ≤0.05