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Table 1 Social and Economic-, Healthcare Team and System-, and Condition-Related Factors of the Participants of the Study according to their Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence, n = 299

From: Adherence to treatment and related factors among patients with chronic conditions in primary care: a cross-sectional study

Factors Total n (%) Adherent n (%) Poor Adherent n (%) Bivariate Analyses
n = 299 n = 166 n = 133 Crude OR 95% CI p-value
Social and Economic
Gender
  Male 154 (51.5) 90 (54.2) 64 (48.1) Ref. Ref.  
  Female 145 (48.5) 76 (45.8) 69 (51.9) 0.78 (0.50 to 1.24) 0.295
  Age, mean ± SD 65.79 ± 13.7 68.96 ± 12.8 61.83 ± 13.9 1.49 (1.24 to 1.78) < 0.001
 Immigration Status
  Born in Spain 251 (83.9) 156 (94.0) 95 (71.4) Ref. Ref.  
  Immigrated to Spain 48 (16.1) 10 (6.0) 38 (28.6) 0.160 (0.08 to 0.34) < 0.001
Household Income
  1st Tertile (lowest income) 100 (33.44) 52 (31.33) 48 (36.09) Ref. Ref.  
  2nd Tertile 100 (33.44) 62 (37.35) 38 (28.57) 1.51 (0.86 to 2.65) 0.154
  3er Tertile (highest income) 99 (33.11) 52 (31.33) 47 (35.34) 1.02 (0.59 to 1.78) 0.941
 Living Status
  Living alone 63 (21.1) 28 (16.9) 35 (26.3) Ref. Ref.  
  Living with someone 236 (78.9) 138 (83.1) 98 (73.7) 1.69 (1.01 to 3.08) 0.048
 Education
  Primary school or lower 176 (58.9) 98 (59.0) 78 (58.7) Ref. Ref.  
  Secondary school 88 (29.4) 51 (30.7) 37 (27.8) 1.10 (0.65 to 1.84) 0.726
  University or higher 35 (11.7) 17 (10.2) 18 (13.5) 0.75 (0.36 to 1.55) 0.441
Healthcare Team and System-Related
 Frequency of Follow-up Care
  Monthly or more frequently 152 (50.8) 81 (48.8) 71 (53.4) Ref. Ref.  
  Quarterly 117 (39.1) 64 (38.6) 53 (39.8) 1.06 (0.65 to 1.72) 0.818
  Biannually or less frequently 30 (10.0) 21 (12.7) 9 (6.8) 2.05 (0.88 to 4.75) 0.096
   Number of Pharmacies Used for Refills, mean ± SD 1.64 ± 1.0 1.35 ± 0.8 2.00 ± 1.2 0.51 (0.40 to 0.66) < 0.001
 Patient-provider Communication
  Not having good communication 24 (8.0) 9 (5.4) 15 (11.3) Ref. Ref.  
  Having good communication 275 (92.0) 157 (94.6) 118 (88.7) 2.22 (1.03 to 6.11) 0.070
 Quality of Healthcare Delivery
  Not perceiving good quality of care 13 (4.3) 5 (3.0) 8 (6.0) Ref. Ref.  
  Perceiving good quality of care 286 (95.7) 161 (97.0) 125 (94.0) 2.06 (0.66 to 6.45) 0.214
 Treatment Information Received
  Not receiving complete information 161 (53.8) 60 (36.1) 101 (75.9) Ref. Ref.  
  Receiving complete information 138 (46.2) 106 (63.9) 32 (24.1) 5.58 (3.35 to 9.27) < 0.001
Condition-Related
Number of Chronic Conditions, mean ± SD 2.90 ± 1.5 3.08 ± 1.6 2.68 ± 1.5 1.19 (1.02 to 1.39) 0.027
Adjusted Morbidity Group
  AMG1 62 (20.7) 29 (17.5) 33 (24.8) Ref. Ref.  
  AMG2 163 (54.5) 89 (53.6) 74 (55.6) 1.37 (0.76 to 2.46) 0.294
  AMG3 74 (24.8) 48 (28.9) 26 (19.5) 2.10 (1.05 to 4.19) 0.035
 Alcohol Consumption
  Daily drinker 59 (19.7) 30 (18.1) 29 (21.8) Ref. Ref.  
  Occasional drinker 101 (33.8) 51 (30.7) 50 (37.6) 0.99 (0.52 to 1.87) 0.966
  Non-drinker 139 (46.5) 85 (51.2) 54 (40.6) 1.52 (0.82 to 2.81) 0.824
 Tobacco Smoking
  Smoker 49 (16.4) 30 (18.1) 19 (14.3) Ref. Ref.  
  Ex-smoker 98 (32.8) 56 (33.7) 42 (31.6) 0.84 (0.42 to 1.70) 0.636
  Non-smoker 152 (50.8) 80 (48.2) 72 (54.1) 0.70 (0.37 to 1.36) 0.294
 Physical Activity
  Non-active 128 (42.8) 64 (38.6) 64 (48.1) Ref. Ref.  
  Active 171 (57.2) 102 (61.4) 69 (51.9) 0.68 (0.43 to 1.07) 0.097
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; SD, standard deviation; Ref., reference
  2. Bold values are statistically significant at p-values ≤0.05