Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample characteristics of participants with and without gatekeeping before and after PSM

From: The effects of gatekeeping on the quality of primary care in Guangdong Province, China: a cross-sectional study using primary care assessment tool-adult edition

  Before Matching After Matching
Non-gatekeeping N (%) Gatekeeping N (%) Total,
N (%)
P Non-gatekeeping N (%) Gatekeeping
N (%)
Total N (%) P
Sample size 356 (46.5) 409 (53.5) 765 (100)   238 (50) 238 (50) 476 (100)  
Cities
 Dongguan 135 (37.9) 264 (64.5) 399 (52.2) < 0.001 124 (52.1) 118 (49.6) 242 (50.8) 0.647
 Shenzhen 221 (62.1) 145 (35.5) 366 (47.8)   114 (47.9) 120 (50.4) 234 (49.2)  
Gender
 Male 114 (32.0) 207 (50.6) 321 (42.0) < 0.001 99 (41.6) 92 (38.7) 191 (40.1) 0.575
 Female 242 (68.0) 202 (49.4) 444 (58.0)   139 (58.4) 146 (61.3) 285 (59.9)  
Age  
 ≤30 134 (37.6) 117 (28.6) 251 (32.8) 0.026 82 (34.5) 84 (35.3) 166 (34.9) 0.354
 31–60 205 (57.6) 273 (66.7) 478 (62.5)   144 (60.5) 148 (62.2) 292 (61.3)  
 > 60 17 (4.8) 19 (4.6) 36 (4.7)   12 (5.0) 6 (2.5) 18 (3.8)  
Migrant
 No 80 (22.5) 87 (21.3) 167 (21.8) 0.726 45 (18.9) 54 (22.7) 99 (20.8) 0.366
 Yes 276 (77.5) 322 (78.7) 598 (78.2)   193 (81.1) 184 (77.3) 377 (79.2)  
Household monthly income
 < 5000 89 (25.0) 128 (31.3) 217 (28.4) 0.036 65 (27.3) 60 (25.2) 125 (26.3) 0.870
 5000–10,000 155 (43.5) 183 (44.7) 338 (44.2)   111 (46.6) 115 (48.3) 226 (47.5)  
 > 10,000 112 (31.5) 98 (24.0) 210 (27.5)   62 (26.1) 63 (26.5) 125 (26.3)  
Marital status
 Married 318 (89.3) 350 (85.6) 668 (87.3) 0.128 207 (87.0) 203 (85.3) 410 (86.1) 0.691
 Not married 38 (10.7) 59 (14.4) 97 (12.7)   31 (13.0) 35 (14.7) 66 (13.9)  
Education
 Primary school or lower 38 (10.7) 40 (9.8) 78 (10.2) 0.002 30 (12.6) 19 (8.0) 49 (10.3) 0.173
 Middle/High school 214 (60.1) 292 (71.4) 506 (66.1)   147 (61.8) 163 (68.5) 310 (65.1)  
 College or above 104 (29.2) 77 (18.8) 181 (23.7   61 (25.6) 56 (23.5) 117 (24.6)  
Working status
 Employed 245 (68.8) 345 (84.4) 590 (77.1) < 0.001 185 (77.7) 192 (80.7) 377 (79.2) 0.142
 Retired 15 (4.2) 9 (2.2) 24 (3.1)   10 (4.2) 3 (1.3) 13 (2.7)  
 Unemployed 96 (27) 55 (13.4) 151 (19.7)   43 (18.1) 43 (18.1) 86 (18.1)  
Contracted with a GP
 No 337 (94.7) 393 (96.1) 730 (95.4) 0.388 229 (96.2) 226 (95.0) 455 (95.6) 0.656
 Yes 19 (5.3) 16 (3.9) 35 (4.6)   9 (3.8) 12 (5.0) 21 (4.4)  
Self-perceived health status health status
 Excellent/Very good/good 238 (66.9) 311 (76.0) 549 (71.8) 0.006 166 (69.7) 164 (68.9) 330 (69.3) 0.921
 Poor/Fair 118 (33.1) 98 (24.0) 216 (28.2)   72 (30.3) 74 (31.1) 146 (30.7)  
Chronic condition
No 276 (77.5) 288 (70.4) 564 (73.7) 0.026 184 (77.3) 181 (76.1) 365 (76.7) 0.828
Yes 80 (22.5) 121 (29.6) 201 (26.3)   54 (22.7) 57 (23.9) 111 (23.3)  
Period of time since the first visit
 < 2 Years 153 (43.0) 197 (48.2) 350 (45.8) 0.309 103 (43.3) 117 (49.2) 220 (46.2) 0.225
 2–5 Years 100 (28.1) 110 (26.9) 210 (27.5)   70 (29.4) 54 (22.7) 124 (26.1)  
 > 5 Years 103 (28.9) 102 (24.9) 205 (26.8)   65 (27.3) 67 (28.2) 132 (27.7)  
Number of GP visits in the past year
 < 3 136 (38.2) 122 (29.8) 258 (33.7) 0.041 118 (49.6) 91 (38.2) 209 (43.9) 0.064
 3–5 125 (35.1) 149 (36.4) 274 (35.8)   72 (30.3) 79 (33.2) 151 (31.7)  
 6–15 79 (22.2) 107 (26.2) 186 (24.3)   40 (16.8) 57 (23.9) 97 (20.4)  
 > 15 16 (4.5) 31 (7.6) 47 (6.1)   8 (3.4) 11 (4.6) 19 (4.0)  
  1. N number of participants, GP general practitioner
  2. P values were based on chi-square test of difference between those with gatekeepers and those without. Significance indicated at < 0.05