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Table 2 Costs of care in intervention and control groups 0–12 months (in Euros)

From: Cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent primary care program targeting frail elderly people

  Intervention group Control group Adjusted mean differenceb (95% CI) P value
Unadjusted meana SEd Unadjusted meana SEd   
Outcome:
 Katz-15 change score1 0.80 0.13 0.50 0.16 0.37 (−0.10 to 0.80) .10
 QALY2 0.60 0.02 0.60 0.02 −0.03 (− 0.10 to 0.00) .37
 Intervention costs: 456 14 0 0 − 455 (− 512 to − 398) <.001
 Healthcare utilization costs, total: 10,125 983 8114 845 −1143 (− 4198 to 1912) .46
 GP care 163 13 169 18   
 GP care, out of office hours 40 11 36 7   
 Hospital care, inpatient 1557 510 1225 248   
 Hospital care, outpatient 239 24 304 40   
 Nursing home 943 399 198 118   
 Care home 416 218 161 76   
 Day care 422 102 342 101   
 Home care 3712 423 2787 412   
 Domestic care 1472 91 1417 113   
 Physiotherapy 988 309 485 87   
 Medication 1617 296 978 126   
 Total costsc 10,576 983 8114 845 −1583 (− 4647 to 1481) .31
  1. 1Katz-15 index (range 0 to 15); higher score indicates more functional dependence in (instrumental) activities of daily living
  2. 2Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY), as derived from the EQ-5D-3 L.
  3. aUnadjusted means, analyzed with descriptive techniques
  4. bMultilevel mixed model analyses, accounting for clustering and covariates
  5. cTotal costs = intervention costs plus healthcare utilization costs
  6. dSE standard error