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Table 3 Example of process for assigning the reference standard

From: Towards improving diagnosis of memory loss in general practice: TIMeLi diagnostic test accuracy study protocol

Assessor AB MF SJC
Role Consultant geriatrician with interest in memory disorders Consultant neurologist Consultant old age psychiatrist
Study ID XX1 XX1 XX1
Status: Dementia/major neurocognitive disorder DSM 5 or MCI [19]/mild neurocognitive disorder DSM 5 or Normal
DSMa IV [12] Dementia Dementia Dementia
DSMa 5 [13] Major neurocognitive disorder Mild neurocognitive disorder Major neurocognitive disorder
ICD 10b [11] MCI Dementia Dementia
Overall Dementia Dementia Dementia
Consensus judgement Dementia
Aetiological subtype
Alzheimer’s disease probable [6] X   X
Alzheimer’s disease possible [6]   X  
Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease dementia probable [7]    
Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease dementia possible [7]    
Mixed aetiology [13]    
Parkinson’s [13]    
Lewy Body Dementia probable [8, 9, 13]    
Lewy Body Dementia possible [8, 9, 13]    
Tauopathy/Frontotemporal dementia [10]    
Other (describe) [13]    
Uncertain [13]    
Consensus judgement Alzheimer’s disease probable [6]
  1. Notes: For the main analysis participant XX1 would be classed as having dementia
  2. aDiagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders/
  3. bInternational classification of diseases