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Table 6 Complete list of excluded studies

From: Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients: a diagnostic accuracy review

Title Author Year Identified Excusion Excluded after
Abnormal urinalysis results are common, regardless of specimen collection technique, in women without urinary tract infections. Frazee B.W. Enriquez K. Ng V. Alter H. 2015 Embase Wrong group Abstract
A midstream urine collector is not a good alternative to a sterile collection method during the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Verliat-Guinaud J, Blanc P, Garnier F, Gajdos V, Guigonis V. 2015 Medline Wrong group Abstract
Re: Voided midstream urine culture and acute cystitis in premenopausal women. Schaeffer E.M. 2014 Embase Commentary/review Abstract
Associations between individual lower urinary tract symptoms and bacteriuria in random urine samples in women. V. Sorrentino F, Cartwright R, Digesu GA, Tolton L, Franklin L, Singh A, Greco P, Khullar V 2014 Medline Wrong setting Abstract
Infection: Utility of midstream urine cultures questioned. Payton S. 2014 Medline Commentary/review Abstract
Voided midstream urine culture is a good test for acute cystitis in premenopausal women. Cox L, Clemens JQ. 2014 Medline Commentary/review Article
Easy peezy: A patient satisfaction survey on an innovative device for collection of mid-stream urine (MSU) samples. Khorsandi M. Hussain B. Chow W. 2013 Embase Wrong design Abstract
Peezy at ease: Our initial 106 patients experience on an innovative device for collection of Mid-Stream Urine (MSU) samples. Chow W.M. Hussain B. 2013 Embase Wrong design Abstract
Effect of urogenital cleaning with paper soap on bacterial contamination rate while collecting midstream urine specimens Shrestha R, Gyawali N, Gurung R, Amatya R, Bhattacharya SK. 2013 Medline Wrong setting Article
Urine collection in the emergency department: what really happens in there? Frazee BW, Frausto K, Cisse B, White DE, Alter H. 2013 Medline Wrong setting Abstract
Urine specimen collection: how a multidisciplinary team improved patient outcomes using best practices. Dolan VJ, Cornish NE. 2013 Medline Wrong setting Abstract
“Mixed growth of doubtful significance” is extremely significant in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Sathiananthamoorthy S. Swamy S. Kupelian A. Horsley H. Gill K. Collins L. Malone-Lee J. 2012 Embase Wrong design Abstract
The impact of improperly collected urine cultures on patient treatment in the emergency department. Francis K. Lucente K.M. Kim Y. 2012 Embase Wrong design Abstract
Managing UTI in primary care: should we be sending midstream urine samples? Hay AD. 2010 Medline Commentary/review Abstract
A comparative study on bacterial cultures of urine samples obtained by clean-void technique versus urethral catheterization. Lau AY, Wong SN, Yip KT, Fong KW, Li SP, Que TL. 2007 Medline Wrong group Abstract
Comparison of sampling methods for urine cultures. Unlü H, Sardan YC, Ulker S 2007 Medline Wrong setting Abstract
Effect of perineal cleansing on contamination rate of mid-stream urine culture. Blake DR, Doherty LF. 2006 Medline Wrong group Abstract
Obtaining a catheter specimen of urine. Gilbert R. 2006 Medline Commentary/review Article
Taking a midstream specimen of urine. Gilbert R. 2006 Medline Commentary/review Abstract
A novel midstream urine-collection device reduces contamination rates in urine cultures amongst women. Jackson S.R. Dryden M. Gillett P. Kearney P. Weatherall R. 2005 Embase Wrong group Abstract
Catheter specimens of urine: an audit of practice. Gilbert R, Henderson S. 2005 Medline Wrong design Abstract
Contamination of urine specimens did not differ with collection technique in women with acute dysuria. Lifshitz E. Kramer L. 2001 Embase Commentary/review Abstract
Collection and transport of urine for culture. Perera CU. 2001 Medline Commentary/review Abstract
Honey jars and diagnosis of urinary tract infections--ascent quality work. Forsum U. 2001 Medline Wrong design Article
A technique for collection of uncontaminated urine for culture from female patients. Gleason D.M. Bottaccini M.R. Reilly R.J. McNeill J. 2000 Embase Wrong group Article
The midstream muddle. Bannatyne RM. 2000 Medline Commentary/review Abstract
Urine collection and culture in elderly people. Clague J, Horan M. 1998 Medline Wrong design Article
A simple and efficient urine sampling method for bacteriological examination in elderly women. Michielsen WJ, Geurs FJ, Verschraegen GL, Claeys GW, Afschrift MB. 1997 Medline Wrong group Article
Assessment of urine collection technique for microbial culture. Prandoni D, Boone MH, Larson E, Blane CG, Fitzpatrick H. 1996 Medline Wrong group Article
Collecting clean-catch urine in the nursing home: obtaining the uncontaminated specimen. Brazier A.M. Palmer M.H. 1995 Embase Commentary/review Abstract
Bacteriuria--sampling methods and significance. Pfau A. 1994 Medline Wrong design Article
Collection of urine for culture. Jaffe JS. 1994 Medline Commentary/review Abstract
Does a clean-catch urine sample reduce bacterial contamination? Leisure MK, Dudley SM, Donowitz LG. 1993 Medline Wrong group Article
Urine sampling technique Curtis P, Kim-Foley S, Kebede M 1993 References Commentary/review Article
Evaluation of urine sampling technique: bacterial contamination of samples from women students Baerheim A (1), Digranes A, Hunskaar S. 1992 References Wrong group Article
Bacteriological findings in urine specimens from women. Association with urinary tract symptoms and sampling methods. Baerheim A, Digranes A, Hunskaar S, Laerum E. 1991 Medline Wrong design Abstract
Perineal cleansing and midstream urine specimens in ambulatory women Holliday G, Strike PW, Masterton RG 1991 References Wrong group Article
Urine sampling in ambulatory women. Walter FG 1990 Medline Duplicate Abstract
An approach to urinary tract infections in ambulatory women Ronald AR, Conway B 1988 References Commentary/review Article
Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infection in ambulatory women. Latham R.H. Wong E.S. Larson A. 1985 Embase Wrong design Abstract
Clean-catch versus straight-catheter urinalysis results in women. Guss DA, Dunford JV, Griffith LD, Neuman TS, Baxt WG, Winger B, Gruber SL. 1985 Medline Wrong design Article
Validity of urinary catheter specimen for diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the elderly. Grahn D, Norman DC, White ML, Cantrell M, Yoshikawa TT. 1985 Medline Wrong group Abstract
Is the Clean-Catch Midstream Void Procedure Necessary for Obtaining Urine Culture Specimens from Men? Lipsky BA, Inui TS, Plorde JJ, Berger RE. 1984 References Wrong group Article
Comparison of mid catheter collection and suprapubic aspiration of urine for diagnosing bacteriuria due to fastidious micro-organisms. Savige JA, Birch DF, Fairley KF. 1983 Medline Wrong setting Article
THE MYTH OF THE CLEAN CATCH URINE SPECIMEN Immergut MA, Gilbert EC, Frensilli FJ, Goble M 1981 References Wrong group Article
[Diagnosis of urinary infections by the transportable agar method. Collection of urine in non-sterile containers]. Svendsen I, Eklund A. 1980 Medline Wrong design Article
An automatic midstream urine collector. King MR. 1980 Medline Wrong setting Article
Perineal cleansing before midstream urine, a necessary ritual. Morris RW, Watts MR, Reeves DS. 1979 Medline Missing data Article
Comparison of paired midstream voided and catheterized urine samples from female patients in a general hospital. Barnes WF, Albers DD. 1978 Medline Wrong group Article
New method for obtaining uncontaminated urine from women. Cade R, Raulerson JD, Mahoney JJ, Duprey P, Privette M, Phelan MC, Beers H, Fuller TJ, Juncos LI, Grubb WG. 1978 Medline Wrong group Abstract
Comparison of paired midstream voided and catheterized urine sam- ples from female patients in a general hospital. Barnes WF, Albers DD 1978 References Wrong group Article
Qualitative assessment of midstream urine cultures in the detection of bacteriuria. Gower P.E. Roberts A.P. 1975 Embase Wrong group Abstract
Bacterial contamination of urine, collected in fractions from different phases of micturition. A study in healthy women. Henning C, Tornvall G. 1975 Medline Wrong group Abstract
Correlation of a new urine collection-culture tube with the standard loop technique. Martin LP, Ahmed M. 1974 Medline Wrong setting Article
[Examination of the urine. Collection, transport and quantitative bacteriological assessment]. Vejlsgaard R. 1969 Medline Commentary/review Article
Suprapubic bladder aspiration in diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Bailey RR, Little PJ. 1969 Medline Wrong design Article
Reliability of clean-voided mid-stream urine specimens for the diagnosis of significant bacteriuria in the female patient. Lemieux G, St-Martin M. 1968 Medline Wrong setting Article
Voided urine cultures in women. A study of 425. Breitenbucher BR. 1966 Medline Wrong setting Article
The collection of urine for bacteriological investigation. Craig I. 1965 Medline Wrong setting Article
The collection and assessment of midstream urine samples in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in women. DAWBORN JK, PLUNKETT PJ. 1963 Medline Wrong setting Article
A screening method for the evaluation of urinary tract infections in female patients without catheterization. BOSHELL BR, SANFORD JP 1958 Medline Wrong group Article
Sterile-voided urine culture; an evaluation in 100 consecutive hospitalized women. MERRITT AD, SANFORD JP. 1958 Medline Wrong setting Article
A comparison of bac- terial counts of the urine obtained by needle aspiration of the bladder, catheter- ization and midstream-voided methods Monzon OT, Ory EM, Dobson HL, Carter E, Yow EM 1958 References Wrong setting Article
A screening method for the evaluation of urinary tract infections in female patients without catheterization Boswell BR, Sanford JP 1958 References Wrong setting Article
The case against the catheter BEESON, P B 1958 References Commentary/review Article
Observations on the reliability and safety of bladder catheterization for bacteriologic study of the urine. BEESON, P B 1956 References Wrong group Article