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Table 5 Randomized controlled trials and infection rates

From: Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients: a diagnostic accuracy review

Study Technique Patients (n) Incidence Index infected (95 % CI) Reference infected (95 % CI)
Bradbury 1988 MSU vs. MSCC 158 0.25 (0.18-0.31) 0.25 (0.14-0.35) 0.25 (0.16-0.34)
Lifshitz 2000 Random vs. MSCC 242 0.55 (49–61) 0.57 (0.46-0.68) 0.53 (0.45-0.61)
  1. Detailed legend: Infection rates in randomized controlled trials included in the review. 95 % confidence intervals in brackets. MSCC mid-stream clean catch; MSU Mid-stream urine; Random random sample without instruction