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Table 1 Twelve domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), reproduced with permission from Phillips et al. [50]

From: Using theory to improve low back pain care in Australian Aboriginal primary care: a mixed method single cohort pilot study

TDF domain Description
Knowledge An awareness of the existence of something
Skills An ability or proficiency acquired through practice
Social/professional role and identity A coherent set of behaviors and displayed personal qualities of an individual in a social or work setting
Beliefs about capabilities Acceptance of the truth, reality, or validity about an ability, talent, or facility that a person can put to constructive use
Optimism The confidence that things will happen for the best, or that desired goals will be attained
Beliefs about consequences Acceptance of the truth, reality, or validity about outcomes of a behavior in a given situation
Reinforcement Increasing the probability of a response by arranging a dependent relationship, or contingency, between the response and a given stimulus
Intentions A conscious decision to perform a behavior or a resolve to act in a certain way
Goals Mental representation of outcomes or end states that an individual wants to achieve
Memory, attention and decision processes The ability to retain information, focus selectively on aspects of the environment, and choose between two or more alternatives
Environmental context and resources Any circumstance of a person’s situation or environment that discourage or encourage the development of skills and abilities, independence, social competence, and adaptive behavior
Social influences Those interpersonal process that can cause an individual to change their thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Emotion A complex reaction pattern, involving experiential, behavioral, and physiological elements, by which the individual attempts to deal with a personally significant matter or event
Behavioral regulation Anything aimed at managing or changing objectively observed or measured actions