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Table 1 The distribution of general characteristics of quality of life by gender

From: Combined effects of sleep quality and depression on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes

Variables Men (n = 365) Women (n = 579)
Good Poor P Good Poor P
n = 118 N = 247   n = 70 n = 509  
Age >60 62.1 ± 8.7 65.6 ± 10.6 0.002 61.6 ± 9.8 65.5 ± 11.1 0.006
Above high school 14(11.86) 39(15.79) 0.319 5(7.14) 27(5.30) 0.725
No spouse 18(15.25) 56(22.67) 0.099 8(11.43) 73(14.34) 0.51
Regular exercise 105(88.98) 193(78.14) 0.012 60(85.71) 396(68.39) 0.129
Income below population average (%) 49(41.53) 125(50.60) 0.104 46(65.71) 269(52.85) 0.043
BMI 24.1 ± 2.5 23.8 ± 2.9 0.335 24.0 ± 2.5 23.8 ± 2.8 0.571
Median of disease duration (years) 3.8 ± 3.6 6.2 ± 5.1 <0.01 3.8 ± 3.7 6.1 ± 5.4 <0.01
Comorbidities 23(19.49) 107(43.32) <0.01 24(34.29) 184(36.15) 0.761
Complications 10(8.47) 71(28.74) <0.01 3(4.29) 155(30.45) <0.01
Smokers 30(25.42) 105(42.51) 0.002 7(10.00) 21(4.13) 0.064
Drinkers 26(22.03) 61(24.70) 0.577 8(11.43) 18(3.54) 0.007
Depression 33(27.97) 95(38.46) 0.049 17(24.29) 234(45.97) 0.001
Anxiety 37(31.36) 162(65.59) <0.01 49(70.00) 370(72.69) 0.637
Using insulin 4(3.39) 37(14.98) 0.001 2(2.86) 74(14.54) 0.007
HbA1c <6.5 % 36(30.51) 35(14.17) <0.01 24(34.29) 69(13.56) <0.01
PSQI ≥ 8 25(21.19) 113(45.75) <0.01 15(21.43) 252(49.51) <0.01
  1. BMI Body mass index; HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin; DSQL Diabetes Specificity Quality of Life Scale. Comorbidity refers to disease accompanying diabetes; Complication refers to a disease caused by diabetes; PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index