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Table 3 Actual prevalence rates, and standardised odds ratios for individual physical conditions. Conditions are ordered by size of standardised odds ratio (largest to smallest)

From: Multiple physical and mental health comorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities: population-based cross-sectional analysis

Condition Intellectual disabilities No Intellectual disabilities Odds ratio (95 % CI) (standardised by age, gender and deprivation score)
Number (%) Number (%)
Epilepsy 1508 (18.8) 10,876 (0.8) 31.03 (29.23–32.92)
Constipation 1118 (14.0) 35,298 (2.5) 11.19 (10.97–12.68)
Visual impairment 258 (3.2) 8120 (0.6) 7.81 (6.86–8.89)
Parkinson’s disease and Parkinsonism 28 (0.4) 2713 (0.2) 2.83 (1.95–4.13)
Hearing loss 657 (8.2) 54,077 (3.8) 2.81 (2.59–3.06)
Dyspepsia 822 (10.3) 78,382 (5.5) 2.46 (2.28–2.65)
Psoriasis or eczema 132 (1.7) 10,237 (0.7) 2.42 (2.03–2.87)
Thyrotoxicosis/thyroid disorders inc hypothyroidism 629 (7.9) 71,314 (5.0) 2.36 (2.173–2.58)
Bronchiectasis 20 (0.3) 2794 (0.2) 1.68 (1.08–2.61) p = 0.02
Diabetes 531 (6.6) 74,300 (5.3) 1.63 (1.49–1.79)
Migraine 59 (0.7) 9192 (0.7) 1.32 (1.02–1.71) p = 0.03
Active asthma 575 (7.2) 83,930 (5.9) 1.26 (1.16–1.38)
Painful condition 695 (8.7) 125,436 (8.9) 1.20 (1.10–1.30)
Stroke or transient ischaemic attack 171 (2.1) 36,374 (2.6) 1.19 (1.02–1.37) p = 0.02
Glaucoma 72 (0.9) 15,847 (1.1) 1.17 (0.92–1.48) p = 0.18
Chronic kidney disease 135 (1.7) 33,431 (2.4) 1.11 (0.93–1.32) p = 0.22
Heart failure 82 (1.0) 18,817 (1.3) 1.11 (0.89–1.43) p = 0.33
Irritable bowel syndrome 248 (3.1) 51,889 (5.7) 0.97 (0.86–1.11) p = 0.74
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) 209 (2.6) 52,898 (3.7) 0.84 (0.73–0.97)
Atrial fibrillation 71 (0.9) 23,905 (1.7) 0.83 (0.61–0.98) p = 0.03
Viral hepatitis 7 (0.1) 1168 (0.1) 0.82 (0.39–1.74) p = 0.62
Inflammatory bowel disease 40 (0.5) 9711 (0.7) 0.82 (0.60–1.13) p = 0.23
Hypertension 774 (9.7) 233,540 (16.5) 0.72 (0.66–0.78)
Any new cancer in the last 5 years 131 (1.6) 43,533 (3.1) 0.69 (0.58–0.83)
Prostate disease 41 (0.5) 15,192 (1.1) 0.60 (0.44–0.82) p = 0.01
Inflammatory arthritis and related conditions inc gout 151 (2.2) 57,857 (4.1) 0.57 (0.48–0.67)
Cirrhosis/chronic liver disease/alcoholic liver disease 7 (0.1) 2605 (0.2) 0.49 (0.23–1.04) p = 0.06
Multiple sclerosis 9 (0.1) 3838 (0.3) 0.49 (0.25–0.96) p = 0.03
Diverticular disease 66 (0.8) 33,747 (2.4) 0.49 (0.39–0.63)
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) 46 (0.7) 23,194 (1.6) 0.44 (0.33–0.60)
Chronic sinusitis 24 (0.3) 9141 (0.6) 0.44 (0.26–0.62)
Coronary heart disease 160 (2.0) 81,307 (5.7) 0.43 (0.37–0.51)
  1. One way analysis of variance
  2. All differences significant at p < 0.001 except where stated