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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Predictors of patient self-report of chronic kidney disease: baseline analysis of a randomised controlled trial

  Total (n = 436) Did not self-report kidney problems (n = 227) Self-reported kidney problems (n = 209) Odds-ratio (95% CI) Univariate P-value
Recruited from collaborative practice     1.18 (0.78, 1.80) 0.43
 No 174 (39.9) 95 (54.6) 79 (45.4)   
 Yes 262 (60.1) 132 (50.4) 130 (49.6)   
Gender     1.69 (1.14, 2.50) 0.009**
 Male 181 (41.5) 108 (59.7) 73 (40.3)   
 Female 255 (58.5) 119 (46.7) 136 (53.3)   
Age      0.24
 <70 157 (36.0) 75 (47.8) 82 (52.2) 1.0  
 70-79 178 (40.8) 95 (53.4) 83 (46.6) 0.80 (0.61, 1.05)  
 80+ 101 (23.2) 57 (56.4) 44 (43.6) 0.71 (0.39, 1.29)  
Ethnicity     5.54 (0.53, 57.81) 0.15
 White 430 (98.6) 226 (52.6) 204 (47.4)   
 Non-white 6 (1.4) 1 (16.7) 5 (83.3)   
Education     1.04 (0.70, 1.55) 0.85
 No qualifications 192 (44.0) 101 (52.6) 91 (47.4)   
 > = 1 qualification 244 (56.0) 126 (51.6) 118 (48.4)   
Index of multiple deprivation (IMD) (Higher score = greater deprivation) 16.95 (9.8, 31.7) 16.16 (9.6, 31.1) 18 (10.1, 31.7) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) 0.55
Access internet for health information     1.23 (0.74, 2.05) 0.43
 No 322 (73.9) 172 (53.4) 150 (46.6)   
 Yes 114 (26.1) 55 (48.3) 59 (51.8)   
CKD stage     2.67 (1.96, 3.64) <0.001***
 3a 330 (75.7) 191 (57.9) 139 (42.1)   
 3b 106(24.3) 36 (34.0) 70 (66.0)   
Proteinuria     1.95 (1.02, 3.69) 0.042*
 No 388 (89.0) 209 (53.9) 179 (46.1)   
 Yes 48 (11.0) 18 (37.5) 30 (62.5)   
Co-morbid long-term conditions      0.020*
 <=2 136 (31.2) 79 (58.1) 57 (41.9) 1.0  
 3 or 4 192 (44.0) 100 (52.1) 92 (47.9) 1.28 (0.84, 1.94)  
 5+ 108 (24.8) 48 (44.4) 60 (55.6) 1.73 (1.17, 2.57)  
Co-morbid established cardiovascular disease     1.11 (0.89, 1.39) 0.36
 No 254 (58.3) 135 (53.2) 119 (46.9)   
 Yes 182 (41.7) 92 (50.6) 90 (49.5)   
High blood pressure     0.91 (0.62, 1.33) 0.61
 No 174 (39.9) 88 (50.6) 86 (49.4)   
 Yes 262 (60.1) 139 (53.1) 123 (47.0)   
Prostate and urological problems     1.15 (0.61, 2.18) 0.67
 No 387 (88.8) 203 (52.5) 184 (47.6)   
 Yes 49 (11.2) 24 (49.0) 25 (51.0)   
Diabetes     0.84 (0.55, 1.28) 0.41
 No 335 (76.8) 171 (51.0) 164 (49.0)   
 Yes 101 (23.2) 56 (55.5) 45 (44.6)   
Arthritis or painful joints, back trouble, osteoporosis     1.38 (0.82, 2.33) 0.23
 No 150 (34.4) 86 (57.3) 64 (42.7)   
 Yes 286 (65.6) 141 (49.3) 145 (50.7)   
≥1 Other (COPD, stomach ulcer, reflux or IBS, CFS, neurological condition, thyroid problems, skin problems, cancer, haematology, ENT, eye problems or dementia).     1.34 (0.95, 1.90) 0.094
 No 166 (38.1) 94 (56.6) 72 (43.4)   
 Yes 270 (61.9) 133 (49.3) 137 (50.7)   
General health (Higher score = better general health) 2.75 ± 0.94 2.89 ± 0.96 2.60 ± 0.90 0.72 (0.60, 0.85) <0.001***
Energy & Vitality (Higher score = greater energy levels) 50.78 ± 22.83 55.39 ± 21.65 45.77 ± 23.07 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) <0.001***
HADS –anxiety      <0.001***
 0-3 183 (42.0) 107 (58.5) 76 (41.5) 1  
 4-7 151 (34.6) 86 (57.0) 65 (43.1) 1.06 (0.61, 1.86)  
 8+ 102 (23.4) 34 (33.3) 68 (66.7) 2.82 (1.46, 5.43)  
SCDSC self-care (Higher score = greater self-care skills) 4.35 ± 1.23 4.40 ± 1.24 4.29 ± 1.21 0.93 (0.85, 1.02) 0.13
> 1 cardiovascular risk factor (Diabetes, hypertension or smoking)     1.18 (0.78, 1.77) 0.44
 No 352 (80.7) 186 (52.8) 166 (47.2)   
 Yes 84 (19.3) 41 (48.8) 43 (51.2)   
HeiQ (Self-monitoring and insight) (Higher score = greater self-monitoring) 68.97 ± 12.26 70.74 ± 11.61 67.05 ± 12.68 0.97 (0.96, 0.99) 0.002**
HeiQ (Health services navigation) (Higher score = greater health service navigation) 69.67 ± 15.29 71.31 ± 15.05 67.9 ± 15.39 0.99 (0.97, 1.00) 0.01*
GP contact in previous 6 months 2 (1, 4) 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 4) 1.07 (1.01, 1.14) 0.027*
Nurse visits in previous 6 months 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 3) 1.03 (0.98, 1.09) 0.29
Total hospital visits in previous 6 months 1 (0, 2) 0 (0, 2) 1 (0, 2) 1.03 (0.99, 1.06) 0.12
  1. Data are mean ± SD, number (%) or median (25th, 75th percentile) when data are skewed. Patients aware of kidney problems versus those not aware. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.