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Table 2 Response categories by GPs according to VR-CODES-P

From: Concerns voiced by patients and GPs’ responses during psychosocial visits in primary care: a historical cross-sectional study

Non-explicit, reducing space
Ignore No reference is made whatsoever to the concern  
Shutting down Denying patient’s concern “Oh don’t be silly”
Information advice Giving information or advice in a way that does not open space for further disclosure “Headaches are very common”
Non-explicit, providing space
Silence Silence to invite patient to talk about the concern  
Back channel Minimal prompt to invite patient to talk about the concern “Hmm” “Ok…”
Acknowledgement Implicit comment beyond the minimal back channel “I can see that”
Active invitation Clearly inviting, but implicit in relation to the concern “Would you like to tell me more?”
Implicit empathy Expression of feeling or understanding, without explicit reference to the concern “It must be hard”
Explicit, reducing space
Switching Response that changes the frame of reference of the concern “Did you have similar symptoms in the past?”
Postponing Reducing space for talking about the concern at this moment “I would like to talk with you about this in a minute”
Information advice Acknowledging concern, but giving information or advice that does not open space for further disclosure “You do not need to worry, headaches are very common”
Active blocking Mentioning concern and explicitly refusing to talk about it “Worrying does not do you any good”
Explicit, providing space
Content acknowledgement Echoing, reflecting back, giving paraphrases or summarizing content of concern “You’ve been experiencing headaches for a week now”
Content exploration Asking about content “How long have You’ve been experiencing headaches?”
Affect acknowledgement Echoing, reflecting back, giving paraphrases or summarizing emotional aspects of concern “You’ve worried”
Affect exploration Asking about emotional aspects “Why are you worried?”
Empathy Expression of feeling or understanding, with explicit reference to the concern “I understand that the pain is worrying you”