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Table 2 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression: Comparison of asthma population survey data with population norms [22]

From: Anxiety and panic fear in adults with asthma: prevalence in primary care

  Asthma population Population norm (Crawford et al) Difference 95% CI p-value
n 454 1792    
Median 4.0 3.0    
Mean (sd) 4.72 (4.08) 3.68 (3.07) +1.04 +0.67 to +1.42 <0.001
% score 8+ 22.3% 11.4% +10.9% +7.0 to +15.1%  
% score 8–10 13.0% 7.8% +5.2% +2.1 to +8.8%  
% score 11–15 7.9% 2.9% 5.0% +2.7 to +8.0%  
% score 16+ 1.3% 0.7% +0.6% -0.3 to 2.2%