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Table 4 Associations between patient factors and doctor detection

From: Detection and management of depression in adult primary care patients in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional survey conducted by a primary care practice-based research network

Patient factor Detected, n (%) Not detected, n (%) χ2 (df) Multiple logistic regression (n = 7346)a  
Wald χ2 (df) b/Adj. OR (95% CI)  
Gender    70.80 (1)** 23.70 (1)** 4.38 (1)*
Male 155 (25.5) 3795 (42.9)   1.00 1.00
Female 453 (74.5) 5053 (57.1)   1.89 (1.46 - 2.44) 1.35 (1.02 - 1.78)
Age group    34.76 (2)** 10.08 (2)** 7.94 (2)*
18-34 yrs 102 (17.1) 2351 (27.0)   1.00 1.00
35-54 yrs 216 (36.2) 3120 (35.9)   1.71 (1.23 - 2.39) 1.65 (1.14 - 2.39)
55+ yrs 279 (46.7) 3225 (37.1)   1.61 (1.05 - 2.49) 1.86 (1.14 - 3.01)
Education    23.68 (1)** 0.17 (1) 0.03 (1)
Secondary or above 407 (67.5) 6721 (76.3)   1.00 1.00
Primary or no formal education 196 (32.5) 2090 (23.7)   0.94 (0.71 - 1.25) 1.03 (0.75 - 1.41)
Marital status    1.73 (1) 0.80 (1) 0.40 (1)
Married 355 (59.1) 5422 (61.5)   1.00 1.00
Single/Separated/Divorced/Widowed 246 (40.9) 3391 (38.5)   1.11 (0.88 - 1.41) 0.92 (0.70 - 1.20)
Working Status    117.95 (4)** 38.85 (4)** 20.62 (4)**
Employed 260 (44.4) 5578 (64.0)   1.00 1.00
Unemployed 26 (4.4) 135 (1.5)   3.53 (2.06 - 6.05) 1.56 (0.78 - 3.13)
Retired 167 (28.5) 1827 (21.0)   2.00 (1.40 - 2.84) 2.16 (1.45 - 3.21)
House-maker 115 (19.6) 902 (10.3)   2.02 (1.46 - 2.80) 2.05 (1.41 - 2.97)
Student 18 (3.1) 275 (3.2)   1.62 (0.83 - 3.17) 1.18 (0.56 - 2.46)
Household monthly income    19.86 (1)** 3.56 (1) 0.07 (1)
More than HK$30,000 146 (28.5) 2947 (38.3)   1.00 1.00
HK30,000 or below 367 (71.5) 4746 (61.7)   1.27 (0.99 - 1.63) 1.04 (0.79 - 1.37)
Ethnicity    1.82 (1) 12.53 (1)**  
Chinese 603 (95.3) 8703 (96.3)   1.00 1.00
Non-Chinese 30 (4.7) 333 (3.7)   2.52 (1.51 - 4.20) 2.01 (1.11 - 3.63)
Smoking habit    1.16 (1) 0.86 (1) 0.10 (1)
Non- or ex-smoker 537 (88.5) 7656 (87.0)   1.00 1.00
Current smoker 70 (11.5) 1149 (13.0)   1.18 (0.83 - 1.67) 0.94 (0.64 - 1.39)
Alcohol use    4.99 (1)* 0.13 (1) 0.00 (1)
Less than once a week or never 548 (90.3) 7681 (87.2)   1.00 1.00
More than once a week 59 (9.7) 1131 (12.8)   1.07 (0.74 - 1.54) 1.00 (0.67 - 1.50)
Regular exercise pattern    20.92 (1)** 18.66 (1)** 10.58 (1)**
Yes 394 (65.1) 6465 (73.7)   1.00 1.00
No exercise at all 211 (34.9) 2313 (26.3)   1.62 (1.30 - 2.02) 1.51 (1.18 - 1.93)
Seen a doctor in past 4 weeks    65.72 (1)** 35.67 (1)**  
No 196 (31.0) 4302 (47.7)   1.00 1.00
More than once 436 (69.0) 4726 (52.3)   1.96 (1.57 - 2.44) 1.43 (1.12 - 1.83)
Seen a TCM practitioner in past 4 weeks    14.86 (1)** 2.04 (1) 0.17 (1)
No 469 (74.2) 7275 (80.5)   1.00 1.00
More than once 163 (25.8) 1758 (19.5)   1.20 (0.93 - 1.54) 0.94 (0.70 - 1.26)
Disease co-morbidity    65.21 (2)** 17.64 (2)** 0.97 (2)
None 221 (36.4) 4413 (50.1)   1.00 1.00
One 150 (24.7) 2216 (25.1)   1.29 (0.97 - 1.72) 1.05 (0.76 - 1.44)
Two or more 236 (38.9) 2188 (24.8)   1.88 (1.40 - 2.53) 1.18 (0.84 - 1.65)
Family history mental illness    70.56 (1)** 48.24 (1)** 9.53 (1)**
No 483 (81.5) 7919 (91.7)   1.00 1.00
Yes 110 (18.5) 721 (8.3)   2.61 (1.99 - 3.43) 2.61 (1.99 - 3.43)
Service sector    2042 (1) 1.89 (1) 4.34 (1)*
Public 183 (28.8) 2355 (26.0)   1.00 1.00
Private 453 (71.2) 6714 (74.0)   1.20 (0.93 - 1.55) 1.36 (1.02 - 1.83)
Symptom severity/PHQ-9 score c    779.72 (4)**   147.03 (4)**
Minimal/score 0-4 175 (29.1) 5725 (65.0)    1.00
Mild/score 5-9 178 (29.6) 2260 (25.6)    2.16 (1.63 - 2.86)
Moderate/score 10-14 135 (22.4) 622 (7.1)    4.67 (3.34 - 6.53)
Mod-severe/score 15-19 72 (12.0) 162 (1.8)    8.53 (5.41 - 13.46)
Severe/score 20-27 42 (7.0) 43 (0.5)    10.42 (5.20 - 20.89)
Self-reported depression history c    1564.17 (1)**   85.05 (1)**
No 314 (52.8) 8369 (95.7)    1.00
Yes 281 (42.6) 378 (4.3)    10.16 (7.73 - 13.34)
Self-reported other mental illness history c    330.67 (1)**   43.68 (1)**
No 450 (83.2) 8425 (97.6)    1.00
Yes 91 (16.8) 211 (2.4)    2.89 (1.93 - 4.31)
  1. *p < .05; **p < .01.
  2. aModel Chi-square = 872.43, df = 26, p < 0.001; Nagelkerke R-square = 0.320; Hosmer & Lemeshow Test, Chi-square = 17.79, df = 8, p = 0.023.
  3. bWald test statistics are shown in italic.
  4. cFactors entered in second block of the regression model; Block Chi-sqaure = 591.50, df = 6, p < .001.