Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between patient factors and PHQ-9 screening outcome

From: Detection and management of depression in adult primary care patients in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional survey conducted by a primary care practice-based research network

Patient factor PHQ + ve, n (%) PHQ-ve, n (%) χ2 (df) Multiple logistic regression (n = 7675)a  
Wald χ2 (df)b/Adj. OR (95% CI)  
Gender    44.41 (1)** 11.24 (1)** 4.55 (1)*
Male 336 (32.4) 3721 (43.2)   1.00 1.00
Female 702 (67.6) 4897 (56.8)   1.36 (1.14 - 1.62) 1.22 (1.02 - 1.46)
Age group    17.11 (2)** 9.99 (2)** 11.89 (2)**
18-34 yrs 316 (31.1) 2201 (26.0)   1.00 1.00
35-54 yrs 371 (36.5) 3045 (35.9)   0.95 (0.76 - 1.18) 0.87 (0.70 - 1.09)
55+ yrs 329 (32.4) 3232 (38.1)   0.63 (0.46 - 0.87) 0.58 (0.42 - 0.80)
Education    0.45 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.09 (1)
Secondary or above 772 (75.0) 6514 (75.9)   1.00 1.00
Primary or no formal education 258 (25.0) 2069 (24.1)   0.99 (0.78 - 1.25) 1.04 (0.82 - 1.32)
Marital status    71.62 (1)** 28.18 (1)** 24.14 (1)**
Married 508 (49.3) 5394 (62.9)   1.00 1.00
Single/separated/divorced/widowed 523 (50.7) 3188 (37.1)   1.62 (1.35 - 1.93) 1.57 (1.31 - 1.88)
Working Status    83.98 (4)** 32.09 (4)** 22.70 (4)**
Employed 582 (57.6) 5395 (63.5)   1.00 1.00
Unemployed 48 (4.7) 116 (1.4)   2.74 (1.79 - 4.18) 2.31 (1.48 - 3.60)
Retired 201 (19.8) 1833 (21.6)   0.97 (0.72 - 1.31) 0.95 (0.70 - 1.29)
House-maker 129 (12.7) 899 (10.6)   1.33 (1.01 - 1.75) 1.30 (0.98 - 1.73)
Student 52 (5.1) 248 (2.9)   1.70 (1.17 - 2.47) 1.62 (1.11 - 2.37)
Household monthly income    75.00 (1)** 28.93 (1)** 27.23 (1)**
More than HK$30,000 220 (24.6) 2951 (39.4)   1.00 1.00
HK30,000 or below 676 (75.4) 4539 (60.6)   1.66 (1.38 - 2.00) 1.65 (1.37 - 2.00)
Ethnicity    0.01 (1) 1.08 (1) 0.16 (1)
Chinese 1039 (96.3) 8471 (96.3)   1.00 1.00
Non-Chinese 40 (3.7) 321 (3.7)   1.27 (0.81 - 1.98) 1.10 (0.69 - 1.74)
Smoking habit    19.24 (1)** 10.09 (1)** 8.90 (1)**
Non- or ex-smoker 847 (82.6) 7511 (87.4)   1.00 1.00
Current smoker 179 (17.4) 1079 (12.6)   1.44 (1.15 - 1.81) 1.42 (1.13 - 1.79)
Alcohol use    0.18 (1) 0.40 (1) 0.26 (1)
Less than once a week or never 904 (87.9) 7510 (87.4)   1.00 1.00
More than once a week 125 (12.1) 1084 (12.6)   1.08 (0.85 - 1.39) 1.07 (0.83 - 1.38)
Regular exercise pattern    57.12 (1)** 29.46 (1)**  
Yes 647 (63.2) 6361 (74.3)   1.00 1.00
No exercise at all 377 (36.8) 2204 (25.7)   1.58 (1.34 - 1.86) 1.58 (1.33 - 1.86)
Seen a doctor in past 4 weeks    94.67 (1)** 41.12 (1)** 30.88 (1)**
No 356 (33.0) 4276 (48.7)   1.00 1.00
More than once 723 (67.0) 4512 (51.3)   1.70 (1.45 - 2.00) 1.60 (1.36 - 1.89)
Seen a TCM practitioner in past 4 weeks    87.93 (1)** 32.20 (1)** 31.28 (1)**
No 751 (69.6) 7176 (81.6)   1.00 1.00
More than once 328 (30.4) 1615 (18.4)   1.70 (1.41 - 2.03) 1.70 (1.41 - 2.05)
Disease co-morbidity    71.11 (2)** 63.57 (2)** 48.96 (2)**
None 437 (42.3) 4319 (50.2)   1.00 1.00
One 223 (21.6) 2207 (25.7)   1.25 (1.01 - 1.55) 1.19 (0.96 - 1.48)
Two or more 374 (36.2) 2071 (24.1)   2.45 (1.95 - 3.08) 2.22 (1.76 - 2.80)
Family history mental illness    37.88 (1)** 31.05 (1)** 16.62 (1)**
No 869 (85.8) 7716 (91.6)   1.00 1.00
Yes 144 (14.2) 704 (8.4)   1.89 (1.51 - 2.36) 1.62 (1.28 - 2.04)
Service sector    8.37 (1)** 2.49 (1)  
Public 318 (29.5) 2232 (25.4)   1.00 1.00
Private 761 (70.5) 6560 (74.6)   0.85 (0.70 - 1.04) 0.85 (0.70 - 1.05)
Self-reported depression history c    420.70 (1)**   125.97 (1)**
No 795 (78.0) 8104 (95.1)    1.00
Yes 224 (22.0) 420 (4.9)    4.10 (3.20 - 5.24)
Self-reported other mental illness history c    110.70 (1)**   4.82 (1)*
No 888 (91.1) 8195 (97.4)    1.00
Yes 87 (8.9) 219 (2.6)    1.51 (1.05 - 2.17)
  1. *p < .05; **p < .01.
  2. aModel Chi-square = 546.73, df = 22, p < .001; Nagelkerke R-square = 0.143; Hosmer & Lemeshow Test, Chi-square = 14.42, df = 8, p = 0.072.
  3. bWald test statistics are shown in italic.
  4. cFactors entered in second block of the regression model; Block Chi-square = 141.46, df = 2, p < .001.