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Table 2 Patient and provider adjusted relative risk* (RR) from the multivariable regression model

From: What is the impact of primary care model type on specialist referral rates? A cross-sectional study

Independent variable Levels Relative risk (RR) 95% confidence interval for RR P-value
Primary care model CAP-I 0.965 0.943–0.987 0.0021
FFS 0.940 0.917–0.963 <.0001
CAP-NI 1.000 - .
Patient characteristics
Health status (ADG) 3 (Very sick) 8.464 8.358–8.571 <.0001
  2 5.846 5.787–5.906 <.0001
  1 3.020 2.996–3.043 <.0001
  0 (Healthy) 1.000 - .
Income quintile 5 (high) 1.041 1.038–1.044 <.0001
  4 1.041 1.038–1.044 <.0001
  3 1.031 1.028–1.034 <.0001
  2 1.020 1.018–1.023 <.0001
  1 (low) 1.000 - .
Rurality Rural 0.935 0.925–0.945 <.0001
  Non-major urban centre 0.990 0.984–0.995 0.0001
  Major urban centre 1.000 1.000 .
Patient age 0-21 3.591 3.558–3.623 <.0001
  22-40 2.986 2.962–3.011 <.0001
  41-56 1.895 1.883–1.908 <.0001
  57+ 1.000 - .
Patient sex Female vs. male 1.172 1.169–1.175 <.0001
Physician characteristics
Physician sex Female vs. male 1.145 1.124–1.165 <.0001
Year of graduation   1.003 1.002–1.004 <.0001
Foreign trained Foreign vs. local 0.926 0.906–0.946 <.0001
Time in model   1.001 1.001–1.001 <.0001
  1. *A relative risk greater than one indicates that the patient group was more likely to be referred than the specified reference group, whereas a value below one indicates that they are less likely to be referred relative to the reference group.