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Table 1 Provider and patient level characteristics by model

From: What is the impact of primary care model type on specialist referral rates? A cross-sectional study

Characteristic Primary care model type All n = 6370
FFS CAP-NI CAP-I
n = 3357 n = 1591 n = 1 422
Physician level     
Female (n, %) 1285 (38.3) 588 (37.0) 570 (40.1) 2443 (38.4)
Years since graduation (mean, SD) 26.4 (11.0) 25.1 (10.5) 23.7 (10.6) 25.5 (10.8)
Foreign trained (n, %) 1125 (33.6) 243 (15.3) 206 (14.5) 1574 (24.8)
Years practicing in current model (mean, SD) 4.0 (1.8) 1.7 (1.3) 2.4 (2.2) 3.1 (2.1)
Patient level n = 5 390 238 n = 2 573 253 n = 2 083 383 n = 10 046 874
Female (n,%) 2 821 266 (52.3) 1 345 330 (52.3) 1 104 388 (53.0) 5 270 984 (52.5)
Age in years (n, %)     
  0–19 1 215 419 (22.6) 570 824 (22.2) 478 242 (23.0) 2 264 485 (22.5)
  20–39 1 463 203 (27.2) 620 080 (24.1) 499 797 (24.0) 2 583 080 (25.7)
  40–59 1 674 815 (31.1) 796 341 (31.0) 628 284 (30.2) 3 099 440 (30.9)
  60–79 843 309 (15.7) 465 495 (18.1) 379 943 (18.2) 1 688 747 (16.8)
  80+ 193 492 (3.6) 120 513 (4.7) 97 117 (4.7) 411 122 (4.1)
Aggregated diagnosis group (n, %)     
  0 585 650 (10.9) 356 024 (13.8) 336 593 (16.2) 1 278 267 (12.7)
  1 3 283 238 (60.9) 1 649 720 (64.1) 1 340 816 (64.4) 6 273 774 (62. 5)
  2 1 386 818 (25.7) 521 824 (20.3) 373 666 (17.9) 2 282 308 (22.7)
  3 134 532 (2.5) 45 685 (1.8) 32 308 (1.6) 212 525 (2.1)
Income quintile (n, %)     
  1 (low) 1 037 373 (19.4) 390 390 (15.3) 362 374 (17.5) 1 790 137 (17.9)
  2 1 080 224 (20.2) 454 207 (17.8) 400 160 (19.3) 1 934 591 (19.4)
  3 1 110 734 (20.7) 503 332 (19.7) 413 768 (20.0) 2 027 834 (20.3)
  4 1 131 680 (21.1) 574 193 (22.5) 451 132 (21.8) 2 157 005 (21.6)
  5 (High) 999 066 (18.6) 635 649 (24.9) 442 822 (21.4) 2 077 537 (20.8)
Rurality index (n, %)     
  ≥45 92 378 (1.7) 92 125 (3.6) 202 923 (9.9) 387 426 (3.9)
  10–44 760 940 (14.2) 811 197 (31.8) 763 140 (37.1) 2 335 277 (23.4)
  ≤10 4 499 476 (84.1) 1 651 700 (64.7) 1 092 498 (53.1) 7 243 674 (72.7)