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Table 3 Linear regression models with understanding of diabetes care as the outcome variable

From: Impact of communicative and critical health literacy on understanding of diabetes care and self-efficacy in diabetes management: a cross-sectional study of primary care in Japan

  HL
  Functional HL Communicative HL Critical HL
  β p β p β p
Model 1 0.155 0.015 0.558 < 0.001 0.451 < 0.001
Model 2 0.176 0.011 0.503 < 0.001 0.429 < 0.001
Model 3 0.172 0.011 0.479 < 0.001 0.426 < 0.001
  1. Model 1: unadjusted.
  2. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, education, economic status, Internet use, social support, time since the diagnosis of diabetes, number of oral glucose-lowering drugs, insulin use, and diabetic complications.
  3. Model 3: model 2 plus the clarity of the physician’s explanation.
  4. HL: health literacy.