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Table 1 Patient characteristics (N = 269)

From: Impact of communicative and critical health literacy on understanding of diabetes care and self-efficacy in diabetes management: a cross-sectional study of primary care in Japan

Age, mean ± SD (range), years 64.4 ± 7.4 (31–75)
Male gender, n (%) 148 (55.0)
Education, n (%)  
 Middle school 83 (30.9)
 High school 123 (45.7)
 Vocational school/2-year college 23 (8.6)
 University or higher 33 (12.3)
 No answer 7 (2.6)
Self-rated economic status, n (%)  
 Lower 85 (31.6)
 Middle 142 (52.8)
 Upper 38 (14.1)
 No answer 4 (1.5)
Internet use by themselves, n (%)  
 Yes 58 (21.6)
 No 205 (76.2)
 No answer 6 (2.2)
Social support, mean ± SD (range) 5.1 ± 1.3 (1–7)
Time since the diagnosis of diabetes, mean ± SD (range), years 11.0 ± 9.4 (1–48)
Hemoglobin A1c, mean ± SD (range), % 7.6 ± 1.1 (5.6–13.1)
BMI, mean ± SD (range), kg/m2 24.8 ± 3.9 (15.6–43.6)
Understanding of diabetes care, mean ± SD (range) 3.78 ± 0.75 (1–5)
Self-efficacy for diabetes management, mean ± SD (range) 2.69 ± 0.58 (1–4)
Number of oral glucose-lowering drugs, n (%)  
 None 77 (28.6)
 One 107 (39.8)
 Two 62 (23.0)
 More than three 23 (8.6)
Insulin use, n (%) 59 (21.9)
Complications, n (%)  
 None 153 (56.9)
 Retinopathy 45 (16.7)
 Nephropathy 75 (27.9)
 Neuropathy 20 (7.4)
 Ischemic heart disease 19 (7.1)
 Stroke 15 (5.6)