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Table 1 Barriers and facilitators to collaboration

From: Views and experiences of nurse practitioners and medical practitioners with collaborative practice in primary health care – an integrative review

Factors impacting on collaboration Frequency*
Clarity of NP role & scope of practice 15
NPs take over workload from MPs 11
Confidence in each other’s competence 11
Complementary skills and practice ideology 9
Knowing the NP/MP & good working relationship 9
Reciprocity (including the absence of hierarchy & control) 9
Clear legal liability 8
Effective communication (including the use of technologies) 8
Financial support for NP role 7
Mutual trust & respect 7
Support from MPs 6
Shared responsibility 6
High level of NP autonomy 5
Working in close physical proximity 4
Regular meetings & time to collaborate 3
Positive attitude towards collaboration 3
Official recognition of NP role 3
Collaboration develops and improves over time 2
MPs’ concern of becoming deskilled (barrier only) 1
MPs feel threatened by NPs (barrier only) 1
  1. *Data were extracted from qualitative, survey and mixed-methods studies. The frequency refers to the number of times each barrier and facilitator was found in 18 studies.