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Table 1 Viral, genetic, and autoimmune diseases of the liver (tested for by a "liver panel"), their prevalence in the British population and diagnostic algorithms.*

From: Should patients with abnormal liver function tests in primary care be tested for chronic viral hepatitis: cost minimisation analysis based on a comprehensively tested cohort

Disease Prevalence amongst adult population (%) Blood tests done on all members of the cohort (to diagnose or screen for the disease) Diagnostic algorithm
Chronic viral hepatitis C 0.42 [46] Hepatitis C virus antibody (HCV Ab) Viral marker positive.
Chronic viral hepatitis B 0.3 [47] Hepatitis B viral markers (HBV Surface Ag) Viral marker positive.
Metal storage disease: Iron 0.25 (prevalence of phenotype; homozygous plus complex heterozygous) [48] Iron saturation Genotype if iron saturation >50%.
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) 0.024 [49] Antimitochondrial Ab Raised antibodies and raised ALP level.
Autoimmune hepatitis 0.001 [50] Smooth Muscle Ab Raised antibodies and raised ALT, AST or globulin exceeding twice the upper limit of normal. Confirmed by hepatologist.
Metal storage disease: Copper <0.025 [51] Caeruloplasmin Low levels of caeruloplasmin.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency <0.025 [52] Alpha-1 antitrypsin Low Alpha-1antitrypsin levels followed by phenotype testing.
  1. * Method by which the diagnosis was made.