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Table 9 Post-test probability of significant symptoms with a positive (LR 2.57) or negative dipstick (LR 0.15) test for nitrites and leucocyte-esterase combined [23]

From: Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

Symptom Reference standard Pre-test probability
(95%CI) (%)
Post-test probability
(95%CI) (LR+)
Post-test probability
(95%CI) (LR-)
Dysuria 102 CFU/ml 71.0 (70.0-71.0) 86.3(85.7-86.3) 26.9 (25.9-26.9)
  103 CFU/ml 62.3 (61.0-63.6) 80.9(80.1-81.8) 19.9 (19.0-20.8)
  105 CFU/ml 51.1 (49.5-52.8) 72.9(71.6-74.2) 13.6 (12.8-14.3)
Frequency 102 CFU/ml 67.8 (67.0-68.5) 84.4(83.9-84.8) 24.0 (23.3-24.6)
  103 CFU/ml 58.6 (57.5-59.5) 78.4(77.7-79.1) 17.5 (16.9-18.1)
  105 CFU/ml 47.8 (46.7-49.0) 70.2(69.2-71.1) 12.1 (11.6-12.6)
Hematuria 102 CFU/ml 75.8 (70.9-80.1) 89.0(86.2-91.2) 32.0 (26.8-37.6)
  103 CFU/ml 67.4 (60.6-73.6) 84.2(79.8-87.8) 23.7 (18.7-29.5)
Nocturia 102 CFU/ml 69.4 (67.3-71.3) 85.4(84.1-86.5) 25.4 (23.6-27.1)
  103 CFU/ml 60.8 (58.4-63.3) 80.0(78.3-81.6) 18.9 (17.4-20.6)
Urgency 102 CFU/ml 69.8 (68.5-71.1) 85.6(84.8-86.3) 25.7 (24.6-27.0)
  103 CFU/ml 61.7 (59.9-63.6) 80.5(79.3-81.8) 19.5 (18.3-20.8)
  105 CFU/ml 49.1 (47.1-51.1) 71.3(69.6-72.9) 12.6 (11.8-13.6)
Vaginal discharge 102 CFU/ml 54.1 (48.3 - 59.9) 75.2 (71.0-79.3) 15.0(12.3-18.3)