Skip to main content

Table 3 Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity, using a bivariate random effects model (103)

From: Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

SYMPTOM No. of studies No. of Patient Sensitivity (95% CI) Variance Logit (sensitivity) Specificity (95% CI) Variance Logit (specificity)
Dysuria a 12 2845 0.79 (0.72-0.85) 0.39 0.39 (0.31-0.49) 0.40
Frequency b 11 2246 0.88 (0.82-0.92) 0.43 0.21 (0.14-0.31) 0.64
Back pain c 4 635 0.38 (0.26-0.52) 0.22 0.57 (0.40-0.73) 0.43
Fever d 6 926 0.12 (0.05-0.26) 1.15 0.91 (0.80-0.97) 1.16
Flank pain e 4 783 0.29 (0.18-0.43) 0.31 0.65 (0.59-0.70) 0.01
Hematuria 6 854 0.22 (0.18-0.27) 0.02 0.87 (0.81-0.91) 0.11
Lower abdominal pain f 5 914 0.44 (0.26-0.64) 0.78 0.58 (0.37-0.77) 0.86
Nocturia 5 1492 0.59 (0.48-0.70) 0.22 0.57 (0.51-0.62) 0.04
Urgency g 7 1739 0.62 (0.46-0.76) 0.72 0.51 (0.35-0.68) 0.78
  1. a One study reported dysuria as painful voiding (Medina-Bombardo 2003)
  2. b Two studies reported frequency/dysuria (Dans&Klaus, Wigton: training and validation set)
  3. c One study reported back pain as 'back or groin pain' (O'Brien)
  4. d One study reported fever as pyrexia (Lawson 1973)
  5. e One study reported flank pain as loin pain (Lawson 1973)
  6. f Different definitions were used: 'Suprapubic pain' (Hummer-Pradier 2005), Suprapubic pressure' (Baerheim), 'abdominal pain' (Fahey 2003)
  7. a One study reported urgency as urgency/frequency (Hummers-Pradier 2005)